Tuesday, November 26, 2019

The Engines Impact on Society essays

The Engines Impact on Society essays We were asked to explore the impact of a single social or cultural innovation on any society, as a whole, being free to choose any innovation that interested us. The internal combustion engine is being used today in thousands of different products around the world today. From automobiles, to oil pumps, to generators for houses. Different forms of the engine are being used, like the 2-stroke and the 4-stroke engines. Basically, a 4-stroke works like this: 1.) The intake valve opens in the piston and allows a gas/air mixture to enter the cylinder. 2.) When the mixture is completely in the cylinder, the crankshaft compresses, or smashes, the mixture and ignites it with the sparkplug. 3.) The explosion from the mixture, around 3 tons of force, propels the crankshaft back down, providing the kinetic energy. 4.) The Exhaust valve opens and releases the spent mixtures components. Harold T. Glenn, in his book Exploring Power Mechanics states that this sequence of events is known as the 4-stroke cycle because of the four strokes involved. *** Marshall Brain, in his article in How The Car Works states that the concept is similar to a the mechanics of a cannon. Load the cannon with powder, put a cannon ball on the top, and ignite the powder. The resulting explosion is similar to what happens in an engine . *** Another example that Marshall Brain mentions is the concept of a potato gun. If you were to cap a 3 inch plumbing pipe with an igniter attached, sprayed some WD-40 in one end and a potato in the other, the ignited the WD-40 would explode and force the potato out at a great velocity. The gasoline engine doesnt operate much different than this. The gasoline/air mixture is the WD-40, the igniter is the sparkplug, and the plumbing pipe the engines cylinder. *** In the American culture the internal combustion engine has played a very specific role in most aspects of our liv...

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Interesting Gadolinium Element Facts

Interesting Gadolinium Element Facts Gadolinium is one of the light rare earth elements belonging to the lanthanide series. Here are some interesting facts about this metal: Gadolinium is silvery, malleable, ductile metal with a metallic sheen. It is fluorescent and tends to have a faintly yellowish tint.Gadolinium, like other rare earths, is not found in pure form in nature. The primary source of the element is the mineral gadolinite. It is also found in other rare earth ores, such as monazite and bastnasite.At low temperatures, gadolinium is more ferromagnetic than iron.Gadolinium has superconductive properties.Gadolinium is magnetocaloric, which means its temperature increases when it is placed in a magnetic field and decreases when it is removed from the field.Lecoq de Boisbaudran separated gadolinium from its oxide in 1886. He named the element for  Finnish Chemist Johan Gadolin, the discoverer of the first rare earth element.French chemist and engineer  Felix Trombe was the first to purify gadolinium in 1935.Gadolinium has the highest thermal neutron cross section of all the elements.Gadolinium is used in nuclear reactor control rods to regular fission. The element is injected into MRI patients to increase image contrast.Other uses of gadolinium include manufacture of certain iron and chromium alloys, computer chips and CDs, microwave ovens, and televisions.The pure metal is fairly stable in air, but tarnishes in moist air. It slowly reacts in water and dissolves in dilute acid. At high temperatures, gadolinium reacts with oxygen. Gadolinium Chemical and Physical Properties Element Name: GadoliniumAtomic Number: 64Symbol: GdAtomic Weight: 157.25Discovery: Jean de Marignac 1880 (Switzerland)Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2Element Classification: Rare Earth (Lanthanide)Word Origin: Named after the mineral gadolinite.Density (g/cc): 7.900Melting Point (K): 1586Boiling Point (K): 3539Appearance: soft, ductile, silvery-white metalAtomic Radius (pm): 179Atomic Volume (cc/mol): 19.9Covalent Radius (pm): 161Ionic Radius: 93.8 (3e)Specific Heat (20 °C J/g mol): 0.230Evaporation Heat (kJ/mol): 398Pauling Negativity Number: 1.20First Ionizing Energy (kJ/mol): 594.2Oxidation States: 3Lattice Structure: HexagonalLattice Constant (Ã…): 3.640Lattice C/A Ratio: 1.588 References Los Alamos National Laboratory (2001), Crescent Chemical Company (2001), Langes Handbook of Chemistry (1952), CRC Handbook of Chemistry Physics (18th Ed.)

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Is emancipation and how can it be used to explain security Essay

Is emancipation and how can it be used to explain security problematics - Essay Example A number of components such as trans-national capitalism, liberal democracy and international organizations have affected international security in positive and in some cases negative ways. Krause & Williams (1997, p. 49) states ‘The challenges to the conventional understanding of security and the object to be secured also necessitate an epistemological shift in the way security is to be understood and studied.’ In the last decade or so, there have been various events which have threatened international security, some of them being weapons proliferation, advancements in military technology and ethnic conflict in a number of nations. Additionally, cases of human rights violation, gender inequalities and environmental as well as economic security have been on the increase in the present era. This has necessitated a new type of security framework as well as management, which can successfully handle the modern security concerns worldwide. This is also an era where terrorism activities have skyrocketed. Among the economists and scholars, there is an ongoing debate whether strategic studies should be modified and improved or whether security studies should be augmented. It’s however been agreed by most scholars, that strategic studies should serve a limited purpose and should be seen in the broader context of security studies. Recently, a number of European schools have integrated security studies, and theories from some of these schools have created a major impact in the field of international relations or IR. Krause & Williams (1997, p. 231) states ‘In the West, security was inseparable from the need to secure the space of Western Europe, the securing of a feminine object by a masculine subject, the United States.’ Unlike the security studies originating in American soil, the European schools have put forward breakthrough ideas and incisive analysis which has created a

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Response of chapter 2 of Inside Rikers Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Response of chapter 2 of Inside Rikers - Essay Example Confinement may seem like the easiest way to control crime and punish offenders, but it is not entirely effective in reforming criminals. This chapter makes an interesting point that solitary confinement can be one of the most inhumane psychological punishments for criminals. Criminals are put in a prison inside a prison with almost all of their liberties controlled. It is a double-edged sword which, unfortunately, reinforces criminal behavior. Wynn stressed: â€Å"Solitary confinement itself can cause a very specific kind of psychiatric syndrome.† She is saying that solitary confinement should be considered as a strong independent variable for â€Å"random violence and self-mutilation, suicidal behavior...† She gives examples of how the CPSU breeds the most violent behaviors and thoughts among criminals which Captain talks about. Captain admits that isolation can turn criminals into worse personalities. He knows how unsafe it is, for instance, to have a normal life out side prison, knowing that any ex-convict might get back on COs. Through these examples, Wynn and the Captain make a good point on how detaching inmates from social contact and treating them like animals intensify their criminal attitudes and behaviors. Corrections officers are human beings too who are trapped in prison like inmates and they often suffer from the psychological and social effects of their jobs. William West, a former CO, said: â€Å"It’s the dirtiest, most thankless job in law enforcement† (Wynn). Wynn also cited a joke that accurately portrays the effects of this job on COs: â€Å"What’s the first three things you get when you become a CO?† The answer: ‘A car. A gun. A divorce.’† Harry, one of the COs, provides an example of a CO, the first man to be punished with death penalty. Harry has a calm attitude towards COs who turn into criminals themselves, as if he knows that such consequences of

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Healthy Grief Essay Example for Free

Healthy Grief Essay Grief is an inner sense of loss, feeling of emptiness and sadness every human being experience at some point of life and each person feels and handles it differently. But there are some common stages of grief which starts from recognizing a loss to the final acceptance. It is not necessary that grief should occur after the death of a beloved one. Grief is the multifaceted response to death and losses of all kinds, including emotional (affective), psychological (cognitive and behavioral), social, and physical reactions (Stroebe, Hansson, Stroebe, Schut, 2001). Grief is a healthy response to a loss, which should not be prevented. But grief lasting more than two months and is severe enough to interfere with daily life may be a sign of complicated grief and more serious illness such as major depression (grief-mourning, grieving and bereavement, 2012) which has to be treated. Kubler- Ross developed the five stages of grieving process which include denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. It is not necessary that everybody will go through all these stages in the same order. Knowing all these stages will help us to cope with the loss. Here in this paper the writer tries to compare and contrast the grieving process defined by Kubler – Ross with that of the grieving process of Job in the Bible, and tries to relate the findings with that of the writer’s own preferred method of handling grief and see whether this research has changes the view of grief. According to the Bible, Job was an obedient, god-fearing man, who was blessed with wealth, health and wisdom. One day Job lost all his wealth, health and possessions, including his children. In addition to that Job had developed very bad sores all over his body. This all was because God was challenging the Satan with Job’s faith and obedience. But finally Satan failed. Even after all those terrible loss happened in his life, Job never turned against God, but he turned towards Him and worshiped Him saying, â€Å"Naked I came out of my mother’s womb, and naked shall I return there. Yahweh gave, and Yahweh has taken away. Blessed be Yahweh’s name† (Job 1:22). While comparing Kubler-Ross’s stages of grief with that of Job’s story, the first stage would have been denial which helps to survive the loss. But there was no biblical narration that says Job use denial as a part of his grieving process. Instead he was asking his wife, â€Å"Shall we indeed accept good from God and not accept trouble? †(Job 2:10). In stage two, when all these losses occurred one would usually get angry towards self, others, or towards God. Here Job neither got angry towards others or the God, but he got angry toward himself and cursed the day he was born. The third stage is the stage of bargaining, where someone bargains to get the life back as it was before. Job did not go to that stage even after his wife tells him to â€Å"renounce God and die†. In the fourth stage or the stage of depression Job did withdrew from his life and it is evidenced in the chapter 2: 11, 12 that he was sitting in the ashes for seven days and nights since his grief was so great and he was not even talking to his three friends who were sitting with him for those seven days and nights. In the final stage of acceptance, one usually accepts the loss. Here in Job’s example he was accepting whatever God has given him without questioning. He didn’t say any words against Him. He believed that the God does have a plan and He will do the right thing. Once Satan got failed Job was provided with all his wealth and health in double and he was blessed with ten children and lived a long life. The five stages of grief are not definite for each person and it does not occur as a linear fashion in everybody’s life. For example some people may get angry first then acceptance and depression. It depends on each persons living circumstances. it is different for each person. The same way grief can occur in a caregiver’s life too, especially during end-stage care. t is necessary to identify the signs and integrate these normal response to life Grief is not only about pain. Even in grief it can be mixed with joy. In an uncomplicated grief process, painful experiences are intermingled with positive feelings, such as relief, joy, peace, and happiness that emerge after the loss of an important person (Zisook Shear 2009). Frequently, these positive feelings elicit negative emotions of disloyalty and guilt in the bereaved. The writer considers healthy grief as a normal response and it will help to ease the stress and people show it differently. But any signs of prolonged grief should be taken care of seriously and get the support needed. Nurses’ grief resulting from the death of a patient is different from the grief experienced by the family. It may be hard to remain strong for the patient and family, while at the same time compartmentalizing the pain they feel for the loss of relationship with the patient and family. in the article, â€Å"creating a curtain of protection: nurses’ experiences of grief following patient death†, the authors says that nurses’ coping response incorporate spiritual worldview and caring rituals and nurses reate a curtain of protection to mitigate the grieving process and allow them to continue to provide supportive nursing care. In conclusion healthy grief is a normal response to a death or loss and knowing the different stages of grief will help to cope with the loss. The different stages occur differently for each person. Knowing the stages of grief will help the caregivers also to identify the signs of grief and help to cope with that. In a healthcare environment, the nurses have to be strong enough to support the patient and family and should be able to compartmentalize the pain they feel for the patient and family.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

The Impossibility of a True Selfless Friendship as seen in Shakespeare

Selfless friendships do not exist, the only friendships that will last contently, and without resentment must benefit both parties in some way. If the relationship is parasitic, and only one person involved is benefitting, then eventually there will be resentment and one or both persons involved will opt to end the friendship. In Shakespeare's Timon of Athens, this is most notably seen in the character of Timons, who gives all of his friends gifts and holds feasts for them, but recieves nothing in return when he needs it the most. Eventually, Timon realized his friends were false and lost hope in all mankind, when he was once a very generous, selfless friend. In the same respect, if no one is recieving anything from the friendship, the friendship does not exist. Apemantus' and Timon's relationship appears this way, as they seem to share a bond, but are never friends. Apemantus does not appear to be friends with anyone within the play, because of his belief that friendship should be s elfless. The only true friendship in Timon of Athens is between Timon and Flavius, his steward. Even though Timon calls Flavius selfless, they both recieve physical gifts from each other, and there is no selfless exchange of affection. The wealthy Timon starts out the play talking to a messenger about his friend, Ventidius, having been imprisioned due to outstanding debt. Timon decides to "pay the debt and free him" (line 105, 178). The messenger tells Timon that his "lordship ever binds him" (line 106, 178), and Ventidius will feel obligated to repay Timon for the rest of his life. This, already, is a perfect example of how there is no friendship that can last with only one person being selfish, and the other selfless. There is always an anxiety and... ...ndship. At the beginning of the play, Flavius worked for Timon as a steward, so he was paid for the financial help he gave Timon, but even at the end of the play, when Flavius attempts to be selfless by wanting to be Timon's steward for no pay, and gives Timon money, Timon returns the gift with gold. Flavius is a loyal friend to Timon, and Timon speaks kindly of only Flavius at the end of Timon of Athens, but at no point is either party selfless within the friendship. If friendship, by definition, is selfless, then true friendship does not exist. If one or both parties are completely selfless, and do not benefit from the friendship in any way, then it cannot exist or exist for a significant amount of time without eventual hostility or animosity. But, if there is a trace of selfishness from both friends, then the partnership can be sustained with loyalty and respect.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

How to Write a Persuasive Essay

English 1021 Diagnostic Essay Some people believe that writing an essay is extremely hard. They are wrong. If you have the correct information, time, and a cup of coffee you should have no problem. There are many different types of essays, for example, an informative essay, a research paper, or a persuasive essay. Although they all have a different overall theme and purpose for being written, they all have the same outline for how exactly to write it. No matter what you always start off with an introduction, then you move to your supporting paragraphs, and end with a conclusion.Here is the in depth breakdown of what a proper informative research paper should included. First thing’s first, you must always have a topic. The topic of your paper is the focus, the area that you have researched and explored. Once you find your topic, you must make sure that you have sorted out all of the available information. Topics are not always easy to find. There are some that you should avoid using such as topics based solely on one single source, and topics that are brand new or overly broad.Now that you have your topic, you must brainstorm and narrow down the topics to create and issue. The issue of the paper is the question that you are asking. When creating your issue, make sure the avoid issues that can be easily answered by just one single source. Another thing that you need to come up with is a hypothesis or tentative claim, a proposition made as a basis for reasoning, without any assumption of its truth. Test the hypothesis as you continue to research.By having a claim, you can prevent yourself from being overwhelmed by the information that you are finding. Now that you have come up with a topic and claim, you are ready to begin your research and essay. The next step of this process is to direct your essay to your audience. Ask yourself some questions. How much does my audience know about this topic? What are my readers’ expectations, interests, and needs concerning this issue? What evidence have I come up with that will inform them?Once you have asked yourself those questions it is time to start using your sources. Some of the best sources are newspapers, and books. If you are going to use the internet, which most of us do, be careful with the credibility of what you find. Once you have found a source that you believe fits your topic well, ask yourself some questions and see if the criteria of the source meets it. Is this recent information? Is the author credible or an expert on this subject? Does this information seem thoughtful and relative to the topic?Is this evidence reliable? When dealing with web sources make sure that they contain an author or are hosted by a respectable site such as a library, university, or an official association. Now that you have found your sources, it is time to continue. Taking notes on sources can sometimes be difficult. Write down some of the things that jump out to you about the topic that might b e useful. Another thing that you must write down are the page numbers that you are getting the information from.Make sure to think about why you chose to write down a particular idea and always differentiate your ideas and words from that of your source. Never forget to use quotation marks for direct quotations. Your next job is to draft your research paper. Refine your thesis as much as needed. Figure out based on your information where each source may fit in. When writing your draft, avoid using your own comments to hold together another persons idea. Now it is time for you to construct your own essay using the secondary sources that you have found to support your claims.Some things that you may need to know are how to use a summary, paraphrase, and quotation. A summary of something gives a main idea or supporting points. It is short and focuses on the main points to provide background or general support for your point. Paraphrasing put the information that you have found into new words to make sure that you and your audience understand the original information more clearly. A quotation records the exact punctuation and wording of the source that you have received it from and encloses it in quotation marks.You can use quotations when an author’s words are extremely vivid and stand out to you or when the words of that particular reliable authority would lend support to your paper. Now that you know how to summarize, paraphrase, and quote, it is imperative that you do not plagiarize. To avoid plagiarism, document everything you have learned from your sources including their language and ideas. If you express their ideas in your own words you must still give them the credit and documentation. The only exception to this is when something is common knowledge.Now that you know all of the do’s and dont’s of an informative research paper it is your turn to put them into effect. The hardest thing about an informative research paper is finding a t opic and making sure that your sources and information are credible and relative to the topic at hand. Once you have found all of the correct and credible sources for your topic you are ready to write away. Like I said earlier, many people believe that writing a research paper is extremely hard, but if you follow these steps and advice, you will never fail at writing an informative research paper.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Argo and Casablanca – Main Characters Comparison

Both Tony and Rick are faced with a dilemma throughout Argo and Casablanca, respectively. They catch themselves getting more and more involved with the escape plan, and then their emotional connection leads to altruistic actions. Both Argo and Casablanca have a scene that underscores these characters transitions. On the first movie Mendez, have a heated up conversation with his boss on the phone, while on the other movie, Blaine points a gun at an official.Up to this part, the characters were very cold, and professional, however, after it they become attached to the people that are being saved. On one side, the scene selected in Argo focuses on: camera proximity and movement, decor and framing. On the other side, the scene selected in Casablanca focuses on: soundtrack, camera movement and positioning, and on and off screen space. The camera proximity and camera movement in Argo, emphasizes the characters reactions, by always showing the character with the strongest reaction.It is not iceable that the camera zooms in Tony as soon as he is alone in the room, and is kept that close to him until the end; his supervisor only has one close-up shot, while the camera spins around him, it is when he is explaining the new changes in CIA’s operation, and for the rest of the scene, the camera captures Jack O’Donnell through medium/close-up shots, finishing with a medium shot of him breaking a cup on his table. The camera is handheld on Mendez’ shots, creating a more personal, and emotional perception of the character, while the zoom highlights his reactions and creates tension to the scene as whole.The steady shots of Jack are calmer, and more impersonal, making him look more professional, and less emotive. The framing plays an important role on this sequence. Both Tony and Jack are placed on the right side of the screen at first, with Tony changing sides on the frame only when he states that he and his boss are responsible for the people they are tryin g to save. The right side of the screen is reserved for when the characters are more impersonal and professional, while the left side of the screen is used only when Tony explicitly becomes emotionally attached.Decor and lighting differentiate the perception of each space used on the scene. In the house located in Iran, the lighting is darker because the scene is slightly underexposed, which helps create a low-key effect, while warm colors dominate the location. This assists on the creation of a more intimate environment, just like a house should be. On the other side of the world, in CIA’s headquarters, O’Donnell’s office receives natural lighting from its window, which illuminates a blue wall as well as a typewriter of the same color, making this space look like a professional location, analogous to a typical workplace.In Casablanca, the camera positioning and movement play an important part too. However, the positions and movement are broader, ranging from lo ng shots to close-ups and from static positioning to panning around the location; different angles are used as well. Long shots in addition to panning introduce the area that will be used throughout the scene, which are the Cafe’s bar, and its entrance, that is seen from both the inside and outside.Another panning, more noticeable than the others, is the one that shows Renault spying on the other characters from Rick’s office; the camera pans in a diagonal fashion from the upper right, where the officer is hidden, to the lower left, the spot where the three other character are and also the place where the rest of the sequence takes place. Racking focus is used when Major Strasser’s subordinate opens his office’s door; the focus quickly changes between the man and his superior. A low angle is used when the official says that Laszlo is under arrest, which aggrandizes the captain.In this scene, mood and tension is accomplished mainly by soundtrack and sound effects instead of dialogue, in comparison to Argo’s selected scene, which does exactly the opposite. At first, when Rick is talking to Ilsa, the song â€Å"As Time Goes By† plays on the background as a motif, creating intimacy between them, and as Victor joins them, the song transforms for a brief moment, suddenly disappearing when Renault, in the same shot as aforementioned in the last paragraph, surprises the Resistance hero, thus producing tension.To increase tension even further, a sound effect is used when Rick points his gun at Louis, and his voice is heard off-screen, until the camera tilts towards his face. The soundtrack is back before long, and its purpose now is to underscore tension as Renault makes the phone call. In terms of formal elements, Casablanca’s selected sequence relates more to the rest of the movie than does Argo’s, because only the editing and mise-en-scene aspects are kept the same through the picture, the sound and cinematogra phy are an exception to the rule.Casablanca brands its mise-en-scene and cinematography with relatively spacious locations, and the camera helps to manifest it by using wide angled lens on top of long-shots. Lighting is often the standard three-point scheme, and it kept fixed on most reaction shots. Men are always formally dressed, while Ilsa changes between three different outfits and the cinematography is widely characterized by the use of straight-on angles, to maintain neutrality towards characters, with the exception of a few low shots, which raises some characters’ power.Long shots are predominant on the beginning of scenes, and medium shots, showing two or more people in a group, soon substitute it; close-ups are used mostly for reaction shots. Camera movement includes everything, but handheld and aerial shots. Wide-angle lenses are the favorite in this motion picture. The editing and sounds, follows Hollywood’s standards, always consist of an establishing shot on the beginning of each new scene, introduced by a dissolve from the previous scene’s last shot, and a shot/reverse shot when characters are talking.Usually the rhythm happens on a medium speed. The diegetic sounds prevails, and are easily noticed, they include: most of the music heard on Rick’s Cafe, background noises and sound effects of all sorts, and dialogues. The start of both Argo and Casablanca are almost the same, a narration in addition to various dissolves, introduces rapidly where the films will take place and also a point on history, the only difference is that Casablanca uses a globe, while Argo utilizes the sketches of the fake movie.In Argo, only the editing and mise-en-scene relates to the chosen sequence and the rest of the movie. The main locations are six: Los Angeles, the Central Intelligence Agency’s headquarters, the Iranian house, Iran’s streets, the airport/airplane, and the US embassy on the opening of the movie; and each of the m has its own rhythm and amounts of tension, with the ones located in United States having the longest takes with less direct tension and the ones in Iran’s outdoors being the most tense ones and with the shortest takes.The connection between the countries is made with the repetitive use of cross cutting on some sequences. Continuity practically does not exist on the chosen sequence, but does on the rest of the motion picture. Most of the lighting is supposed to be natural. The costumes are typical of each character’s home country. The editing strongly relates to Casablanca by using Hollywood's standards, like dissolve between scenes, shot/reverse shot during conversations.Cinematography is very different among scenes, and uses all of the possibilities. The scene selected is the only one with a handheld camera with shots focusing on only one character; the other uses for this technique always include groups of people. Aerial shots are also included throughout the movie , in contrast with Casablanca that has none. The camera is always on the eye-level of the shortest character being shown. Close-ups are equally used to show reactions and details, with more camera movement on the last.Sound use is somewhat more complex in Argo, with many off-screen and voice over sounds, like when a conversation is held over the phone or background noises for instance. However, for all the other sections Casablanca and Argo are very similar. Tony and Rick are exclusively professional characters, both of them possess a high social position, and are financially stable, they also enjoy desired political positions among their peers, and neither display signs of emotional attachment to others, until the selected scene on each movie.After it, both characters start to be perceived as warmer people, who are still able to be, in their own ways, part of intimate relationships. As the pictures get closer to their ends, Mendez and Blaine are not seen exclusively as professional s anymore, but as more altruistic persons, the CIA’s agent also boosts his social, and political, position by receiving an award, while the Cafe’s owner earns respect from the couple and the corrupt official.In the end, it is easily acknowledged that both movies are more similar than different, with a special call for their plot, beginning, development of main character, and major formal elements. The differences, if evaluated properly, are almost none, and are all hidden among small details. Coincidentally or not, Michael Curtiz has a quote that applies appropriately to both Tony and Rick when they become emotionally attached to the hostages and the couple, respectively; the quote is â€Å"The only things you regret are the things you don’t do. †

Thursday, November 7, 2019

One Percenters Motorcycle Gang

One Percenters Motorcycle Gang The term One-Percenters originated from the July 4, 1947, annual Gypsy Tour race sanctioned by the American Motorcyclist Association (AMA) which was held in Hollister, California. The  Gypsy Tour race,  which was the  pià ¨ce de rà ©sistance of motorcycle racing events during that time, was held at different locations across America and had been previously held in Hollister in 1936. The Event A location near the town was chosen again in 1947 partly because of  its  long relationship with bikers and various biker-related events that were held throughout the years, and also because of the welcome the   AMA  received by the town merchants who knew the positive impact it would have on the local economy. Approximately 4,000 attended the  Gypsy Tour  race and many of the riders and non-riders ended up celebrating in the town of Hollister. For three days there was a lot of hard-core beer drinking and street racing that went on in the town. By  Sunday,  the California Highway Patrol was called in armed with tear gas to help put an end to the event. The Aftermath After it was over, there was a record of about 55 bikers being arrested on misdemeanor charges. There were no reports of property being destroyed or of looting and not a single report of any local people being harmed in any way. However, the San Francisco Chronicle ran articles that exaggerated and sensationalized the event. Headlines like  Riots... Cyclists Take Over Town and words such as â€Å"terrorism† described the general atmosphere in Hollister over the holiday weekend. To top it off, a  San Francisco Chronicle  photographer by the name of Barney Peterson  staged  a photograph of an intoxicated biker holding a bottle of beer in each hand while leaning against a  Harley-Davidson motorcycle,  with broken beer bottles scattered on the ground. Life magazine picked up on the story and in the  July 21,  1947,  edition it ran  Petersons staged photograph   on full-page display titled, â€Å"Cyclist’s Holiday: He and Friends Terrorize Town.†Ã‚  Ultimately, to the dismay of the AMA, the image sparked both fascination and concern about the violent, unruly nature of the growing subculture of motorcycle groups. Afterward, films about motorcycle clubs with members depicting bad behavior began hitting the movie theaters.  The Wild One, starring  Marlon Brando, brought particular attention to gang-type behavior displayed by members of motorcycle clubs. The event became known as the Hollister Riot although there is no documentation that an actual riot occurred and the town of Hollister invited the race back, other cities across the country believed what the press reported and it resulted in numerous cancelations of the  Gypsy Tour races. AMA Responds It was rumored that the AMA defended the reputation of its association and member, with an alleged press release stating that, The trouble was caused by the one percent deviant that tarnishes the public image of both motorcycles and motorcyclists and going on to say  that 99 percent of bikers are law-abiding citizens, and the one percent are nothing more than outlaws.   However,  in 2005 the AMA denied credit for the term, saying that there was no record of any AMA official or published statement that originally used the one percent reference. No matter where it actually originated from, the  term caught on  and  new outlaw motorcycle gangs   (OMGs) emerged and embraced the concept of being referred to as  one-percenters. The Impact of War A number of veterans returning from the Vietnam War joined motorcycle clubs after being ostracized by many Americans, especially within their same age group. They were discriminated against by colleges, employers, often spat upon when in uniform and some considered them nothing but government-grown killing machines. The fact that 25 percent were drafted into the war and that the rest were trying to survive it did not seem to sway opinions. As a result, in the  mid-1960-70s, a  surge of outlaw motorcycle gangs emerged across the country and created their own association which they proudly called, One Percenters.  Within  the association, each club could have its own rules, operate independently and given a designated territory.   The outlaw motorcycle clubs; the  Hells Angels, Pagans, Outlaws, and Bandidos emerged as what authorities  refer to the Big Four with hundreds of other one-percenters clubs existing within the subculture. Differences Between Outlaws and One Percenters Defining the differences (and if any exists) between outlaw motorcycle groups and one-percenters depends on where you go for the answer. According to the AMA,  any motorcycle club that does not adhere to AMA rules is considered an outlaw motorcycle club. The term outlaw, in this case, is not  synonymous with criminal or illegal activity. Others, including some outlaw motorcycle clubs, believe that while all one-percent motorcycle clubs are  outlaw  clubs, meaning that they do not follow AMA rules, not all outlaw motorcycle clubs are one-percenters, (meaning that they do not participate in illegal activity. The Department of Justice does not differentiate between outlaw motorcycle gangs (or clubs) and one-percenters. It defines one-percenter  outlaw motorcycle gangs as being highly structured criminal organizations, whose members use their  motorcycle clubs as conduits for criminal enterprises.

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Biography of Amelia Earhart, Pioneering Female Pilot

Biography of Amelia Earhart, Pioneering Female Pilot Amelia Earhart (born Amelia Mary Earhart; July 24, 1897–July 2, 1937 [date of disappearance]) was the first woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean and the first person to make a solo flight across both the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans.  She also set several height and speed records in an airplane. Despite all these records, Amelia Earhart is perhaps best remembered for her mysterious disappearance on July 2, 1937, which has become one of the enduring mysteries of the 20th century. Fast Facts: Amelia Earhart Known For:  The first woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean, the first person to make a solo flight across both the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans, mysteriously disappeared flying over the Pacific Ocean on July 2, 1937Also Known As:  Amelia Mary Earhart, Lady LindyBorn:  July 24, 1897 in Atchison, KansasParents: Amy and Edwin EarhartDied:  Date unknown; Earharts plane vanished on July 2, 1937Education: Hyde Park High School, Ogontz SchoolPublished Works: 20 Hrs., 40 Min.: Our Flight in the Friendship,  The Fun of ItAwards and Honors: Distinguished Flying Cross, Cross of Knight of the  Legion of Honor, Gold Medal of the  National Geographic SocietySpouse: George PutnamNotable Quote: â€Å"The most effective way to do it is to do it.† Early Life Amelia Mary Earhart was born  on July 24, 1897, in Atchison, Kansas to Amy and Edwin Earhart. Her father was a lawyer for a railroad company, a job that required frequent moving, so Amelia Earhart and her sister lived with their grandparents until Amelia was  12. As a teenager, Amelia moved around with her parents for a few years, until her father lost his job due to a drinking problem. Tired of her husband’s alcoholism and the family’s increasing money troubles, Amy Earhart moved herself and her daughters to Chicago, leaving their father behind in Minnesota. Earhart graduated from Chicago’s Hyde Park High School and went on to the Ogontz School in Philadelphia. She soon dropped out to become a nurse for returning  World War I  soldiers and for victims of the  influenza epidemic of 1918. She made several attempts to study medicine and she worked as a social worker, but once she discovered flying, aviation became her sole passion. First Flights In 1920 when she was 23 years old, Earhart developed an interest  in airplanes. While visiting her father in California, she attended an air show and decided to try flying for herself. Earhart took her first flying lesson in 1921. She received her â€Å"Aviator Pilot† certification from the Federation Aeronautique Internationale on May 16, 1921. Working several jobs, Earhart saved up the money to buy her own airplane, a small Kinner Airster she called the  Canary. In the  Canary, she broke the women’s altitude record in 1922 by becoming the first woman to reach 14,000 feet in an airplane. The First Woman to Fly Over the Atlantic In 1927, aviator  Charles Lindbergh  made history by becoming the first person to fly non-stop across the Atlantic, from the U.S. to England. A year later, publisher George Putnam tapped Amelia Earhart to be the first woman to fly across the Atlantic- as a passenger. The pilot and navigator were both men. On June 17, 1928, the journey began when the  Friendship, a Fokker F7, took off from Newfoundland, Canada bound for England. Ice and fog made the trip difficult and Earhart spent much of the flight scribbling notes in a journal, while Bill Stultz and Louis Gordon handled the plane. 20 Hours, 40 Minutes On June 18, 1928, after 20 hours and 40 minutes in the air, the  plane landed in South Wales. Although Earhart said she did not contribute any more to the flight than â€Å"a sack of potatoes† would have, the press saw her accomplishment differently. They started calling Earhart â€Å"Lady Lindy,† after Charles Lindbergh. Amelia Earhart became an instant celebrity as a woman aviator. Shortly after her trip, Earhart published the book 20 Hrs., 40 Min.: Our Flight in the Friendship, which detailed her experiences. She began to give lectures and fly in shows, again setting records. More Record-Breaking In August 1928 Earhart flew solo across the United States and back- the first time a female pilot had made the journey alone. In 1929, she founded and participated in the Woman’s Air Derby, an airplane race from Santa Monica, California to Cleveland, Ohio. Earhart finished third, behind noted pilots Louise Thaden and Gladys O’Donnell. In 1931, Earhart married George Putnam. This same year she co-founded a professional international organization for female pilots. Earhart was the first president. The Ninety-Niners, named because it originally had 99 members, still represents and supports female pilots today. Earhart published a second book about her accomplishments,  The Fun of It, in 1932. Solo Across the Ocean Having won multiple competitions, flown in air shows, and set new altitude records, Earhart began looking for a bigger challenge. In 1932, she decided to become the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic. On May 20, 1932, she took off again from Newfoundland, piloting a small Lockheed Vega. It was a dangerous trip: clouds and fog made it difficult to navigate, her plane’s wings became covered with ice, and the plane developed a fuel leak about two-thirds of the way across the ocean. Worse,  the altimeter  stopped working, so Earhart had no idea how far above the ocean’s surface her plane was- a situation that nearly resulted in her crashing into the water. Touched Down in a Sheep Pasture in Ireland In serious danger, Earhart abandoned her plans to land at Southampton, England, and made for the first bit of land she saw. She touched down in a sheep pasture in Ireland on May 21, 1932, becoming the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic and the first person to fly across the Atlantic twice. The solo Atlantic crossing was followed by more book deals, meetings with heads of state, and a lecture tour, as well as more flying competitions. In 1935, Earhart made a solo flight from Hawaii to Oakland, California, becoming the first person to fly solo from Hawaii to the U.S. mainland. This trip also made Earhart the first person to fly solo across both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. New Goals Not long after making her Pacific flight in 1935, Amelia Earhart decided she wanted to try flying around the entire world. A U.S. Army Air Service crew had made the trip in 1924 and male aviator Wiley Post flew around the world by himself in 1931 and 1933. Earhart had two new goals. First, she wanted to be the first woman to fly solo around the world. Second, she wanted to fly around the world at or near the equator, the planet’s widest point: The previous flights had both circled the world much closer to the  North Pole, where the distance was shortest. The Most Difficult Point in the Trip Earhart and her navigator Fred Noonan plotted their course around the world. The most difficult point in the trip would be the flight from Papua New Guinea to Hawaii because it required a fuel stop at Howland Island, a small coral island about 1,700 miles west of Hawaii. Aviation maps were poor at the time and the island would be difficult to find from the air, but the fuel stop was necessary. During last minute preparation for the flight, Earhart decided not to take the full-sized radio antenna that Lockheed recommended, instead opting for a smaller antenna. The new antenna was lighter, but it also could not transmit or receive signals as well, especially in bad weather. The First Leg On May 21, 1937, Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan took off from Oakland, California, on the first leg of their trip. The plane landed first in Puerto Rico and then in several other locations in the Caribbean before heading to Senegal. They crossed Africa, stopping several times for fuel and supplies, then went on to  Eritrea, India, Burma, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea. There, Earhart and Noonan prepared for the toughest stretch of the trip- the landing at Howland Island. Since every pound in the plane meant more fuel used, Earhart removed every non-essential item- even the parachutes. The plane was checked by mechanics to ensure it was in top condition. However, Earhart and Noonan had been flying for over a month straight by this time and both were tired. Last Leg On July 2, 1937, Earhart’s plane left Papua New Guinea  heading toward Howland Island. For the first seven hours, Earhart and Noonan stayed in radio contact with the airstrip in Papua New Guinea. After that, they made intermittent radio contact with a Coast Guard ship patrolling the waters below. However, the reception was poor and messages between the plane and the  ship were frequently lost or garbled. The Plane Disappears Two hours after Earhart’s scheduled arrival at Howland Island, on July 2, 1937, the  Coast Guard ship received a final static-filled message that indicated Earhart and Noonan could not see the ship or the island and they were almost out of fuel. The crew of the  ship tried to signal the ship’s location by sending up black smoke, but the plane did not appear. Neither the plane, Earhart, or Noonan were ever seen or heard from again. Naval ships and aircraft began to search for Earharts aircraft. On July 19, 1937, they abandoned their search and in October 1937, Putnam abandoned his private search. In 1939, Amelia Earhart was declared legally dead in a court in California Legacy During her lifetime, Amelia Earhart  captured the imagination of the public. As a woman daring to do what few women- or men- had done, at a time when the organized womens movement had virtually disappeared, she represented a woman willing to break out of traditional roles. The mystery of what happened to Earhart, Noonan, and the plane has not yet been solved. Theories say they might have crashed over the ocean or crashed on Howland Island or a nearby island without the ability to contact help. Other theories have proposed that they were shot down by the Japanese, or were captured or killed by the Japanese. In 1999, British  archaeologists claimed to have found artifacts  on a small island in the South Pacific that contained Earhart’s DNA, but the evidence is not conclusive. Near the plane’s last known location, the ocean reaches depths of 16,000 feet, well below the range of today’s deep-sea diving equipment. If the plane sank into those depths, it may never be recovered. Sources â€Å"Amelia Earhart.†Ã‚  American Heritage.Burke, John.  Winged Legend: The Story of Amelia Earhart. Ballantine Books, 1971.Loomis, Vincent V.  Amelia Earhart, the Final Story. Random House, 1985.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Business decieon making Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Business decieon making - Assignment Example Whereas the institution will provide enough facilities for the students for proper learning, it will prepare them psychologically for the cramped state of the job market. Furthermore, the facility will provide students with practical skills for living positively. It is essential that students learn about life skills and the best ways to cope in the society and adhere to expected norms. Thus, although the institution will not be biased to any religious setting, it will labor to provide the right guidance to students and inculcate in them the significance of ethics and values. In so doing, the institution is set to give the students a mindset that will enable them fit anywhere in the world. Mission The institution’s mission is to train, prepare and mould students of sound character, life skills and with the knowledge of the real world and ability to fit and work anywhere in the globe while providing the best professional services and products Keys to Success The keys to success of the institution will be to ensure it indoctrinates Chinese way of education in the Libyan students. Whereas there will be adherence to the legally recognized syllabus of the Libyan people, the institution will instill Chinese Education system ethics that are geared towards preparing learners for the real world (The China Expat, 2013). Students will have the opportunity to have a feeling of the job market and innovative sphere before they get out of school. In so doing, everyone leaves school a prepared individual, copes well in the environment and becomes more productive than they would otherwise be. Company Summary Company Ownership The institution is owned by a group of Libyan graduates from China. The group is accomplished in matters of education. For the past four years, they have been working as tutors within the country. It is high time they thought their expertise in tutoring and experience in matters of Chinese education could help uplift the education standards of the co untry. They, therefore, have established the institution to aid vulnerable and needy students from the Libyan society. Company Start-Up Plan As stated earlier, the company is a creation of some Libyan graduates with expanse background and expertise in Chinese education system. These graduates from Libya and China have the passion and are highly motivated to start a miniature plan of Chinese education values in the country. The company has so far just began and is in its initial stages of start-up. The institution has started with 20 students in high school. It intends to increase its premises with time an open its doors to more students. The institution is set up to provide help to students with needs, and may not have an escalated expansion in the event that it does not obtain funds for the purpose. Market Analysis and Summary The institution intends to gather student population from all over the country. It will endeavor to reach out to all communities in the country and admit the neediest students in these communities. Whereas the founders believe that it may be impractical to help all students from needy backgrounds, it will labor to reach as many needy students as possible and change their lives. In addition to going out to the community, the institution will go into children’s centers and orphanages that have educational facilities only for the primary category. It will admit students who have finished their primary schooling