Monday, September 30, 2019
Experiment. EDTA Titration of Ca2+ in an unknown solution Experiment. EDTA Titration of Ca2+ in an unknown water sample Modified 9/2012 Objective: The most common multivalent metal ions in natural waters are Ca2+ and Mg2+. In this experiment, you will find the total concentration of calcium ions that can react with EDTA with the assumptions that EDTA reacts 1:1 with metal (Ca2+) ions. Equipment 250-mL Erlenmeyer flask (3) 50-mL Buret Ring-stand and hardware Desiccator 400-mL Beaker 500-mL Vol. flask 250-mL Vol. flask 1. 0-mL Vol Pipette 100-mL Grad cylinder Hot plate Safety and Waste DisposalChemicals Buffer (pH 10): Add 142 mL of 28 wt % aqueous NH3 to 17. 5 g of NH4Cl and dilute to 250 mL with water. Eriochrome black T indicator: Dissolve 0. 2 g of the solid indicator in 15 mL of triethanolamine plus 5 mL of absolute ethanol. 50 wt % NaOH: Dissolve 100 g of NaOH in 100 g of H2O in a 250-mL plastic bottle. Store tightly capped. When you remove solution with a pipet, try not to distu rb the solid Na2CO3 precipitate. Discussion: Hard water is due to metal ions (minerals) that are dissolved in the ground water. These minerals include Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe3+, SO42-, and HCO3-.Generally hard water arises because rainwater moves through limestone, CaCO3 underground that occurs in our area to the aquifer. This is why we measure hardness in terms of CaCO3. The concentration of the Ca2+ ions is greater than the concentration of any other metal ion in our water. The determination of water hardness is routinely used to measure the quality of water that the general public uses. Originally, water hardness was defined as the measure of the capacity of the water to precipitate soap. Hard water is not a health hazard since the main chemical in hard water is calcium.People regularly take calcium supplements. In fact, hard water can be a source of necessary minerals (calcium and magnesium) that is necessary for good health. Indeed, the National Academy of Science go so far as stating t hat that consuming extremely hard water could be a major contributor of calcium and magnesium to the diet. The problem with hard water is that it cause soap scum, clog pipes and clog boilers. Soap scum is formed when the calcium ion binds with the soap. This causes an insoluble compound that precipitates to form the scum you see.Soap actually softens hard water by removing the Ca2+ ions from the water. When hard water is heated, CaCO3 precipitates out, which then clogs pipes and industrial boilers. This leads to malfunction or damage and is expensive to remove. There are two types of water hardness, temporary and permanent. Temporary hardness is due to the bicarbonate ion, HCO3-, being present in the water. This type of hardness can be removed by boiling the water to expel the CO2, as indicated by the following equation: HCO3- (aq) ? H2O (l) + CO2 (g). Because bicarbonate can be removed it is classified as temporary hardness.Permanent hardness is due to the presence of the ions Ca2+ , Mg+2, Fe3+ and SO4-2. Because boiling cannot eliminate this type of hardness, the water is said to be permanently hard. The table below shows the degree of hardness of the water in terms of its calcium carbonate concentration in ppm and grains. Hardness rating Soft Medium Hard Hard Very Hard Concentration of Calcium Carbonate (mg/L or ppm) 0 < 75 75 to < 150 150 to < 300 300 and greater Concentration of Calcium Carbonate (grains/US gallon) 0 to < 5. 2 5. 2 to < 10. 5 10. 5 to < 21 21 and greaterPermanent hardness is usually determined by titrating it with a standard solution of ethylenediamminetetraacetic acid, EDTA. The EDTA is a complexing, or chelating agent used to capture the metal ions. This causes water to soften, but the metal ions however, are not removed from the water. EDTA simply binds the metal ions so that the ions do not precipitate to form soap scum. EDTA is a versatile chelating agent. A chelating agent is a substance whose molecules can form several bonds to a si ngle metal ion. Chelating agents are multidentate ligands.A ligand is a substance that binds with a metal ion to form a complex ion. Multi-dentate ligands are many clawed, holding onto the metal ion to form a very stable complex. EDTA can form four or six bonds with a metal ion. It is frequently used in soaps and detergents because it forms complexes with calcium and magnesium ions. The ions in hard water are bound to the EDTA and cannot interfere with the cleaning action of the soap or detergent. EDTA is also used in foods. Certain enzymes are responsible for food spoilage. EDTA is used to remove metal ions from these enzymes.It is used to promote color retention in dried bananas, beans, chick peas, canned clams, pecan pie filling, frozen potatoes and canned shrimp. It is used to improve flavor retention in canned carbonated beverages, beer, salad dressings, mayonnaise, margarine, and sauces. It inhibits rancidity in salad dressings, mayonnaise, sauces and salad spreads. In this la b you will be asked to determine the total permanent hardness. EDTA grabs all the metal ions in the water, not just the Ca2+ ions. This gives us a value that is not truly the concentration of Ca2+ ions.This causes an experimental error of about 1%, which is acceptable due to the Ã¢â¬Å"fuzzyÃ¢â¬ endpoints in this type of titration. Erio-T indicator or Eriochrome Black-T indicator is used in this titration. When it is chelated or acidifies, it produces a Pink-Red solution. When it is not chelated and under basic conditions it is Blue. The three pictures show the end point in this titration. There is a 1-drop difference of 0. 01 M EDTA between the first and second pictures and between the second and third pictures. Two or three seconds were allowed for colors in the second and third pictures to develop after adding the additional drop.In each case the solution was thoroughly mixed. This color change from wine red to violet to blue is due to the compact nature of the complex. Experi ment. EDTA Titration of Ca2+ in an unknown solution PROCEDURE Modified 9/2012 1. Dry Na2H2EDTA. 2H2O (FM 372. 24) at 80Ã ° C for 1 h and cool in the desiccator. Accurately weigh out ~ 0. 6 g and dissolve it with heating in 400 mL of water in a beaker. Cool to room temperature pour into a 500-mL volumetric flask. , mix and dilute to the mark. 2. You should practice finding the end point several times by adding a little tap water in a clean beaker and titrating with EDTA.Save a solution at the end point to use as a color comparison for other titrations. 3. Pipet a 1-mL sample of unknown into a 250-mL flask and fill to the mark with deionized water. Mix thoroughly. From this 250-mL stock solution draw 4, 50mL aliquot samples and place each aliquot in 250mL Erlenmeyer flasks. To each sample, add 3 mL of pH 10 buffer and 6 drops of Eriochrome black T indicator. To the first 50-ml solution, titrate with EDTA from a 50-mL buret and note when the color changes from wine red to blue. 4. Rep eat the titration with the next three samples to find an accurate value of the total Ca2+ concentration.Perform a blank titration with 50 mL of distilled water and subtract the value of the blank from each result. 5. Upon completion of the experiment, discard all solution in a chemical waste bottle and wash out the glassware. Be sure to dry your buret in the upside down position.Calculations Ã¢â¬â Analysis: Analyte Ca2+The reaction of Ca2+ ions with H2EDTA2- takes place with a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio: Ca2+ + EDTA2- ? At the end point of the titration, 1-equivalent of Ca2+ reacts with one equivalent of H2EDTA2-. 1 eqv Ca2+ = 1 eqv H2EDTA2-; equivalent Ca2+ = [H2EDTA2-] Ã¢â¬ ¢ Vol EDTA CaH2EDTA. Recall that the analyte (we call this unknown solution) was prepared by taking exactly 1-mL of the unknown solution and diluting in a 250-mL volumetric flask (we will call this the stock solution) 50-mL aliquot (call this the analyte) of this solution was then titrated against EDTA. Note that the analyte concentration is equal to the stock solution concentration. The mass Ca2+ in 1 mL aliquot unknown: Mass of Ca2+ in 50mL Sample = Ã¢â¬Å"H 2EDTA2? $ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬Å"Vol EDTA $ = mol H 2EDTA2- = mol Ca2+in 50mL Analyte # % # % Mass of Ca2+ in 1mL of unknown = mol Ca2+ ? 250mL aliquot Ca2+ __ g Ca2+ ? 50mL Analyte mol ? ? Dilution Factor Atomic mass Ca Mass of Ca2+ in 1 L solution: Mass Ca2+ in 1 L = mass Ca2+ in 1 mL Aliquot Ã¢â¬ ¢ 1000 mL 1 mL Concentration of unknown by percent (m:v), parts per hundred (m:v) and Molarity (M): Mass Ca in 1mL aliquot Vol aliquot solution used % Ca2+ m:v = Ã¢â¬ ¢ 100 ppm Ca2+ m:v = Mass Ca in 1mL aliquot Vol aliquot solution used Ã¢â¬ ¢ 106 Molarity Ca2+ = mass Ca2+ in 1mL Ã¢â¬ ¢ 1 mol Ca __g Ca ? ? ? molar mass Ca Ã¢â¬ ¢ 1 Volume in L of unknown Aliquot used Mass in grams of calcium carbonate unknown in 1L solution: Mass CaCO 3 in 1-L = mass ppt (g) Ã¢â¬ ¢ 1 mol CaC 2O 4 Ã¢â¬ ¢ H 2O __ g CaC 2O 4 Ã¢â¬ ¢ H 2O ? molar mass Ca C O Ã¢â¬ ¢ H O 2 4 2 Ã¢â¬ ¢ 1 mol CaCO 3 1 mol CaC 2O 4 Ã¢â¬ ¢ H 2O 1 mol CaCO 3 Vol in L of aliquot ? ? ? ? Molar mass CaCO 3 Ã¢â¬ ¢ __ g CaCO 3 Ã¢â¬ ¢ 1L Dilution Factor Statistical Analysis Ã¢â¬â 1. Report the mean, medium, standard deviations (s), relative standard deviation (RSD), variance (s2) and the 95% confidence interval for your results. 2. 3. 4. Apply the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s t test at the 95% confidence interval Apply a Q-test to any suspected result. Confidence interval = x + ts n 5. Compare the results of this experiment to the previous experiment, Gravimetric determination of Ca. Apply the Comparison of Means with StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s t, Case2 (p76) Comparing Replicate Measurements. Do the two methods agree within the 95% confidence interval? Ã¢â ¬ Test for Outlier Apply a GrubbÃ¢â¬â¢s Test and Q-Test for any suspected outliers at 95 % level. See page 83 of text for critical values for 95% confidence.If your results show an anomalous data then use the Q-test to determine if the result should be rejected. Q= (Suspected Value Ã¢â¬â Nearest Value) (Suspected Value Ã¢â¬â Furthest Value) G calc = | Questionable value Ã¢â¬â x| s Table of Data, Results and Statistical Analysis: Calcium Raw Data 1. Unknown number 2 Mass of EDTA used 3 Concentration of EDTA 4 Volume of Unknown Ca2+ Solution 5 Volume EDTA during titration 6 Volume EDTA for blank trials 7 Q-Test (95%) of any outlier Analysis and Results 8 Mass of calcium in 1-mL aliquot (Average) 9 Mass of calcium in 1-L solution (Average) 10 Conc. of calcium, %, ppm (m:v) and Molarity (Average) 11 Mass of calcium carbonate in 1-L (Average) Statistical Analysis 12 Averages and Standard deviations of all results 13 Variance, RSD and CV of all results 14 95% Confidence interval 15 ttable and tcalc for replicate measurementsDiscussionThe goal of this experiment was to determine the Ã¢â¬Å"hardnessÃ¢â¬ of the unknown sample by calculating the concentration of calcium ions in an analyte sol ution. Correcting for dilution factors, the concentration of calcium in the unknown in g/L is to be determined and compared to analysis for calcium by EDTA titration. Statistical analysis is applied to the results. A discussion of this experiment should include the accuracy and precision of this experiment compared to the EDTA titration method. An analysis of a comparison of replicated measurement is performed and discussed. Table of results should include Include in your summary table the following: i) Moles of Ca2+ in the unknown and the average equivalent value. ii) Concentration of [Ca2+ ] in the unknown in molarity, ppm and g/L iv) Mean, standard deviations, RSD and CV for each of the above concentration units. v) StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s t at the 95% confidence interval vi) Application of a G and Q-test to any suspected result at the 95% level. vii) ttable, tcalc, Conclusion on comparison of replicated measurements.Experiment. EDTA Titration of Ca2+ in an unknown solution Modified 9/2 012 Sample data table. Sample Unknown # ______ Mass Na2EDTA, (g) Molarity Na2EDTA, (M) Vol. unknown, (ml) Buret Volinitial, (ml) Buret Volfinal, (ml) Volume EDTA used, (ml) Vol EDTA for blank, (ml) Corrected Col EDTA, (ml) Trial 1 Mass Ca2+ in 1 ml aliquot (g) Mass Ca2+ in 1-L solution (g) Concentration Ca (%) Concentration Ca (ppm) Molarity Ca2+, unknown (M) Mass calcium carbonate in 1L Q and G Test for Outliner CaCO3 (g/L), unknown Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4 Average Std dev Variance RSD , CV 95% CL Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4 Blank StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s t Analysis: Comparing replicate measurements Analysis A: CaCO3 (g/L) 1 2 3 4 Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4 Avg Avg X1bar Ã¢â¬â X2bar Sqrt ((n1*n2)/(n1+n2)) (xi-x1)^2 deg freedom Spooled Expt 2 Expt 3 Ex2 (Xi-Xbar)^2 Ex3 (Xi-Xbar)^2 T calc t table Conclusion T calc ? T table, at 95%, two result are (not) considered to be different EDTA Titration of Ca2+ in an unknown solution. # 1 2 CRITERIA (Tentative point distribution Ã¢â¬â m ay change depending on experiment) Quiz / Homework [NONE} Introduction and ProceduresA. IntroductionObjective of Expt.Background information.Math relationship used in study.B. ProceduresOutline of procedures in Expt.Flow chart pictorial of procedures. Procedural changes.Information (data) to be recorded during experiment. (to be presented in Table form. )Safety and disposal information. This portion of the report should be turned in before the start of lab class (prelab discussion). Data, Observe. , Results and Calc.C. Data and ObservationData in table form. & detailed observations written in the table. All data entry should contain the proper number of significant figures and units. Data should always be recorded in an organize fashion.Balance chemical equations; all chemical reaction which occurred during an experiment should be written in this section. Then it should also be written in the discussion portion of the report. This portion of the report should be turned in before you leave the laboratory.Calculations & ResultsD. CalculationsSample calculation shown with Excel spreadsheet available with formulas shownStatistical analysis of data and result. Avg, Std dev, RSD, CVE. ResultsSummary of Result(s) in table form. In this section accuracy of results is very important as well as detailed calculation showing how the result was obtain. Ã¢â¬Å"UnknownÃ¢â¬ will also be included in this section. Discussion / Conclusions and Post-Lab QuestionsF. Discussion (Talking points)What is your final result in this experiment. Are the four trials consistent with each other? If not what would account for the inconsistencies? How did the results in this experimental result compare to the result in experiment 2? Is your result for the amount of calcium carbonate in your unknown within the range of 10 Ã¢â¬â 25 g/L? Elaborate on this. What is the average amount of calcium in tap water, how much more higher is this unknown compared to the average content in tap water (e xpress in %).G. ConclusionSummary of the goal of the experiment and how that goal was achieved in the experiment. H. Post-lab questions or Editorial commentWhat did you learn in this experiment? What skills in lab practice did you develop through this expt? This portion (Calculation and Discussion) is turned in at the beginning of class of the due-date Overall Presentation (of lab notebook)Lab technique during experiment; example are, class preparation, safety glasses precautions and leaving the laboratory clean.Report presentation: examples are the headings of each report that includes name, title, lab partner, date and section #, witness signature. Legibility of report. Is the report easy to read or is important information jotted down by small print in the corners of the lab report. The overall impression is important. Lab TechniqueSafety: wear goggles, handle chemicals with caution, proper handling of lab equipmentLeave lab clean and tidy
Sunday, September 29, 2019
The Canterbury Tales is a famously satirical piece written by Geoffrey Chaucer at the end of the 14th century. Though there are many theories of what Chaucer was criticizing, he mainly was questioning the motives of the church. Chaucer used important figures in the church as characters in the story who go on a journey to Canterbury although the characters do not match the typical ideals of those who would be attributed with the church. Historically, according to the feudal system, the king was to give twenty-five percent of his wealth to the church, which proves the church had plenty of money to use in ways that would not agree with the typical morals of the church. Chaucer is making social commentary by highlighting on the religious hypocrisy and the church as it relates to money. Chaucer begins with his criticism in Ã¢â¬Å"The PrologueÃ¢â¬ by immediately characterizing those who are affiliated with the church in order of their social status, showing that there are many aspects of the church that fall short morally. For example, the Knight, though he is a nobleman and not a religiously affiliated character, is the most virtuous; he comes at the top of the hierarchy in terms of social status. Chaucer has nothing but good things to say about the Knight, especially when he says Ã¢â¬Å"he had proved his worth in his LordÃ¢â¬â¢s warsÃ¢â¬ ¦in Christendom and in heathen-lands and he had always been honored for his valor. Ã¢â¬ (ll 47-50) The Knight was always respected for what he had done, even when he was doing things for his religion which cannot be said for many of the other characters that Chaucer was describing. Though he is not part of the churchman group, Chaucer highlights on the KnightÃ¢â¬â¢s religious affiliation, saying of him that he is Ã¢â¬Å"a valiant warrior for his lord. Ã¢â¬ (ll 47) French speaking, with a dainty smile and polite demeanor with a hidden agenda, the Prioress offers an insight to the twisted world of the church that Chaucer wants the reader to see. The Prioress was characterized as a plump woman because Ã¢â¬Å"she never let a morsel fall from her lipsÃ¢â¬ (ll 128), though this is ironic because as a nun she was supposed to take a vow of poverty. Chaucer then goes on to explain that the Prioress Ã¢â¬Å"had a few small dogs that she fed- with roast meat or milk and fine breadÃ¢â¬ (ll 146-147), further showing that the nun didnÃ¢â¬â¢t take her religious duties as seriously as she should have. The Monk comes next in ChaucerÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy, with the description being Ã¢â¬Å"he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t give a plucked hen for that text that said hunters are not holy menÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"why should he study and drive himself mad. Ã¢â¬ (ll 177-178) Chaucer mocks the MonkÃ¢â¬â¢s lifestyle by criticizing what he chose to do instead of taking his holy vow of silence. He was a hunter and wore expensive clothes: Ã¢â¬Å"I saw that his sleeves were edged at the cuff with gray furÃ¢â¬ ¦and to fasten his hood under his chin he had a very intricate pin made of goldÃ¢â¬ (ll 193) though as a man of the church he should not have had the funds to support his lavish lifestyle, which is why Chaucer criticized the church, because he thought that it was corrupt. Chaucer goes on to say, Ã¢â¬Å"He was a fine fat lord in splendid shape,Ã¢â¬ (ll 200) of the Monk, hinting to the reader that he was well fed as well, though like the Prioress, he should not have been due to a vow of poverty. The PardonerÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose in the church was to pardon the sins of the church goers, though Chaucer made his character corrupt too, by charging people to pardon their sins, something that should be unheard of, though unfortunately, it happened quite commonly. This just relates back to ChaucerÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts of the church being corrupt by wrongly using the money that it had. The PardonerÃ¢â¬â¢s description says, Ã¢â¬Å"heÃ¢â¬â¢d make more money in one day alone than the Parson would in two months come and gone,Ã¢â¬ (ll 703-704). This line also makes mention of the Parson, another religious character, though he was not criticized as much as other characters due to his description of being the only devout churchman. Chaucer uses less harsh descriptions of him and even explains that he does work for the church in non-corrupt ways, much un-like the other religious characters he describes. He says of the Parson, Ã¢â¬Å"[he] was poor, but rich in holy thought and work. He was also a learned man, a clerk; The Christian gospel he would truly preach, devoutly his parishioners to teach,Ã¢â¬ (ll 479-482) from this line the reader gains a more clear understanding for how the church was supposed to be viewed. Those who were affiliated with the church were supposed to be devout and faithful to their God, though many did not fulfill the stereotypes that they were expected to. All in all, the problem with the church is that those who are supposed to be the most holy are not at all. The obsession with money and the wrongful spending of it by all of those who are affiliated is what made the church receive so much criticism. The implied solution to the corruptness of the church is simple: to remove the money. The one character who received little criticism was the only one who helped the church be seen in a positive light, and that was the Parson. By removing the excessive money from the church, the corrupt clergy members would go back to their vows of silence and poverty and the church would be restored to its original holiness.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Growing up - Essay Example Actually, in that year nobody visited him in jail until when his daughter died. Furthermore, it is even apparent that Sonny resulted to drugs out of alienation. These are some of the dire consequences of alienation, as one finds nobody to share their worries and hence resulting to other unethical treads. It is a bitter story how alienation led Sonny to drug addiction. Moreover, we understand from the story that upon the death of SonnyÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, his brother sought SonnyÃ¢â¬â¢s upkeep from his fiancee Isabel's family while he is at war. Nevertheless, this aggravated SonnyÃ¢â¬â¢ alienation as Sonny and Isabel's middle-class family clashed out of lack of understanding. The feeling of not belonging to a certain family for a child is detrimental and parents and relatives should take time to understand the children to evade acts of desperation that result from alienation. The Isabel family could not understand his passion for music and engagement with musicians of all races. Beca use of the feeling of alienation, Sonny runs away from Isabel family to join the Navy. Significantly, the author establishes the fact that the drugs, segregation, violence, and discrimination alienate Sonny from realizing their full potential. Indeed the author quotes, "They were growing up with a rush and their heads bumped abruptly against the low ceiling of their actual possibilities. They were filled with rage. All they really knew were two darknessÃ¢â¬â¢s, the darkness of their lives, which was now closing in on them, and the darkness of the movies, which had blinded them to that other darkness, and in which they now, vindictively, dreamed, at once more together than they were at any other time, and more .Ã¢â¬ (Baldwin 72-73). As such, lack of understanding can propagate alienation among children who are growing up. The adverse effects of alienation are equally unquestionable. In the story, "The Things They carried," the aspect of alienation in growing up comes up. Tim O'B rien, the narrator tells of alienation that he and other young soldiers go through in and out of war. The author notes that the young soldiers go to war unprepared, with fear and confusion that they cannot tell to anyone hence the alienation. The narrator tells of terrible memories in the war front where soldiers died, others got injuries yet nobody would acre to listen to such stories. Indeed, out of this alienation, the narrator sought to flee to Canada to avoid going to war. However, a lodge owner seeks to dilute his feeling of alienation and convinces the narrator to return to his obligations. As such, it is clear that we can curb alienation upon getting reasonable advice. In addition, the narrator states that soldiers face alienation through injustices, unethical practices muted on them at the war zone. This reflects where nobody understands his or her knowledge, tribulation, and difficult memories. Indeed, the author quotes, Ã¢â¬Å"They become hardened and angry, because no on e back home understands what they are going through (OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien 155).Ã¢â¬ Hence, the soldiers live a lonely life far from social interactions. Because of this alienation, soldiers manifest unfavorable traits after war. Indeed, the author records that out of this alienation, a soldier killed himself after the war. As such, lack of somebody to share information, lack of concern or understanding from those around us promotes the feeling of aliena
Friday, September 27, 2019
Examples of historical and contemporary CHANGE MAKERS - Essay Example It was also to be used as a vessel to safeguard traditional Indian customs and rituals. To achieve this, AIM was to use legal means to uphold Indian treaty rights that would allow them to gather wild rice, to hunt and fish freely without interference. These treaties had been violated by the American government and were only used to dupe and subdue the Indians. (Encyclopedia.com, 2005) In 1968, after being released from prison Banks went from door to door requesting native Indians to come together to form what would later be known as AIM. In 1969, he was among the people who seized Alcatraz Island which had been taken from Indians and used to create a prison facility. In 1973, he led the military takeover of a village in South Dakota known as Wounded Knee. The standoff between AIM and American army lasted 73 days despite the fact that AIM had been out numbered and had fewer resources. This grabbed the attention of people throughout American and they began receiving massive support for their courage. (Encyclopedia.com, 2005) Banks through the movement spent most of his life advocating for Indian rights. After earning an arts degree at the University of California, he began lecturing at Deganawidah-Quetzecoat University which is owned and controlled by Indians. He became the first American Indian chancellor and in 1979, Banks began lecturing at Stanford University in California. Since then, he has been travelling overseas giving lectures about Indian customs. In 1987, he was actively involved in convincing two states: Indiana and Kentucky to pass laws that would prevent violation of Indian graves. He then reorganized burial ceremonies for at least 1200 desecrated Indian graves in Uniontown, Kentucky. (Encyclopedia.com, 2005) In 1988, he organized and led the Sacred Run- an Indian spiritual run from New York to San Francisco, and then in Japan where he was stationed as a soldier, from Hiroshima to Hokkaido. In the same year, he published in Japan his
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Law - Essay Example It has a role as the legal guardian of the EU, since it protects the treaties that are the legal framework for the union. It has twenty-eight members from member countries who serve a five-year term in office. Member countries submit their list of qualified commissioners to the European Parliament for approval1. After appointment, the commissioners do not undertake any other duties whatsoever other than the delegated duties. This is the largest institution of the union and it represents all the major political parties in the European Union. It has a democratic setting, which allows citizens to elect their representatives to this parliament. According to the treaty of Lisbon, the member states are set to reduce from 766 to 751 in the year 20142. The major function of this parliamentary body is to air matters of public interest in the European Union. At the sittings of this institution, each member states gets a chance to air the challenges faced by their countries. This parliamentary body also vets the EU budget and has powers to reject it or amend some of its expenditure. Representatives serve a five-year term after which they are free to vie for re-election. Since it is the largest parliament in the world, which represents over 500million citizens it plays an important role in European integration. In the beginning, the role of the parliament was purely for advisory purposes, but in recent years, the treaties of Amsterdam and Nice led to a more active role for the parliament as mentioned above. It is also important to the EU since it monitors actions by the other institutions, which have to defend their actions before parliamentary committees3. This body carries out the legislative duties of the EU. For a while, it was the sole legislative body until the European parliament received such powers. Although the parliament has such powers, they are not as
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Reflection paper - Essay Example He believes that his wife has a nervous depression which is the reason why he takes her away from the town to a far off mansion. He serves as her physician and believes that she is totally helpless while the narrator is not at all satisfied from her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s treatment yet she prefers to stay quiet. She cannot voice all that she detests. She thinks that that is the hurdle between her and her health and that is why she does not get better. She is allowed to write her thoughts on Ã¢â¬Ëdead paperÃ¢â¬â¢ and those writings have to be kept private and away from others. The book focuses on giving woman a respectable environment where can they live as free-willed human beings and enjoy their lives just like men do. The usage of symbolism is quite vivid throughout the book as the narrator tries to present a clear-cut image of what women were treated like back in the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s. Back at her own house, she lived with John, in a bright spacious room which had yellow wallpaper which she completely found hideous and disgusting. She was not allowed to write or to work, all that she was allowed to do was rest. The wallpaper became a source of reaction for her, she could stare at it for hours and soon after she started to examine it, patterns started to take shape. She could see images and everything started to change. She could see a woman behind bars, all trapped and with no way out. She felt enslaved too and all her sympathies were directed towards enslaved women. She becomes paranoid around her babysitter and even her husband and starts to feel that they also want to discover the truth behind the images of the wallpaper. The narrator becomes hysterical and tears the wallpaper down which she seems is the only way to release the woman behind it. The wallpaper was not the cause behind her depression. She just became obsessed with it because she had nothing else to do. She was also not
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Experience of Freedom for Euro-American (the White American) from 1865 to 1900 - Essay Example It is important to note that slavery ended not because of the charitable heart of white American slave owners. Slavery ended after a bitter and bloody civil war that cost hundreds of thousands of American lives. Slavery only ended after a struggle both in military and political terms (passing of the Thirteenth Amendment). Majority of the white slave owners did not even wanted to end slavery and so, from their point of view emancipation is already enough for the former slaves. For the white Americans, freedom meant the emancipation of the slave African Americans and that is already more than enough freedom for them considering that they were once slaves before. The definition of freedom is articulated by Garrizon Frazier, a black minister who responded what freedom means because it includes not only the political aspect but also the economic aspect of freedom. Freedom is Ã¢â¬Å"placing us where we could reap the fruit of our ownÃ labor, and take care of ourselves.Ã¢â¬ The way to accomplish this was Ã¢â¬Å"toÃ have land, and turn it and till itÃ by our own laborÃ¢â¬ (Foner 1983:586). Freedom also includes not only freeing from the shackles that the state formerly sanctioned but also the equal protection of the laws and the equal provision of opportunity in all spheres of life. The White Americans however disagreed to this definition considering the previous of Black Americans as former slaves. To them, emancipation is already enough for the African Americans as freedom exactly meant the removal of the bondage of force servitude. Thus, efforts by White Americans still continued to disenfranchise the White Americans in other forms such as denial of the right to vote, segregation and discrimination. The first few aspects of freedom such as Ã¢â¬Å"reaping the fruit of our ownÃ labor, and take care of ourselves [by having] land, and turn it and till itÃ by our own laborÃ¢â¬ was relatively easier to accomplish because it only
Monday, September 23, 2019
A rose for emily by William Faulkner - Essay Example Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ embodies the subtle correlation between Southern Gothic and FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s interest in the moral inferences of history. William FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s story, Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ , is a famous example of southern gothic literature because of its rich gothic elements such as sense of horror, gloomy setting, signs of understated violence, uncertainty of point of view, the unidentified narrator, and necrophilia. FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s story is fraught with dark imageries and actions such as EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s effort to prevent her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s corpse from burial, her necrophilia (attraction to BarronÃ¢â¬â¢s corpse), the decaying mansion, the strange vanishing of a servant and the murder of Barron. These gothic elements inevitably facilitate the development of the theme of the story: the gradual decay and death of the aristocratic old society and the emergence of the new class. In fact, FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s protagonist, Emily herself symbolizes the dying aristocracy in the first half of the 20th century. She wants to cling to her aristocratic superiority as well as seclusion. Though she falls in love with B aron, a layman, she fails to cope with the class-gap between her and her lover. Faulkner has kept the motif of BaronÃ¢â¬â¢s murder secret and left it to the readersÃ¢â¬â¢ assumption. In fact, this technique of keeping the motif open to interpretation necessarily allows the readers to investigate deep into EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s motif behind the murder in relation to her aristocratic social status. Indeed, there is a number of possible motifs behinds BaronÃ¢â¬â¢s murder: BaronÃ¢â¬â¢s homosexuality, his non-marriageable nature, EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s mental sickness, etc. But whatever the reasons are, they are all related to a central reason: that is the status-gap between Emily and Baron. Faulkner uses mainly three literary techniques -point of view, unidentified narrator, characterization- to
Sunday, September 22, 2019
E-Government in Iraq - Research Proposal Example The main research questions have been depicted hereunder. What is the importance of e-government in Iraq? What are the advantages and drawbacks that face by Iraq through adopting as well as implementing e-government initiative? What are the lessons for Iraq from leading countries on the way of information society? 3. Summary and Outline of the Topic The rapid development of the ICT can be considered as one of the imperative aspects for the countries to build an efficient working environment that can enable their respective government to address various needs and desires of the citizens. With this regard, the implementation of e-government tool is regarded as one of the major potentials that enable the government of various nations to improve and modernise the existing performance of the governmental institutions (Rokhman, 2011). The increasing extent of e-government in the global countries ensures enhancing the quality of life of the citizens for the purpose of assuring greater conve nience to avail various governmental supports. Due to increased level of globalisation, market competition and internationalisation, the governmental institutions tend to foster e-government process in order to boost their efficiency as well as integrate workers, partners and citizens in an effective manner (Wong & et. al., 2011). The broad execution of e-government in the governmental processes involve various ICT tools in order to provide services to the citizens, businesses, workers as well as other non-governmental institutions. Moreover, fostering an effective association with the government as well as the citizens can be considered as one of the major roles of e-government. Therefore, the scope of e-government involves broad assortment of functions to address the needs... The rationale for conducting this research proposal can be understood with reference to the fact that the implementation of e-government is highly important for Iraq to effectively organise and manage broad array of activities that are performed by different governmental institutions of the country. The idea of e-government can provide the country with effective support towards enhancing business or operational performances of the institutions from different disciplines including education, business, military and finance among others. With this regard, it can be stated that the specific aims of the proposed study will be beneficial for Iraq to involve e-government The paper makes a conclusion that the rapid development of the ICT can be considered as one of the imperative aspects for the countries to build an efficient working environment that can enable their respective government to address various needs and desires of the citizens. With this regard, the implementation of e-government tool is regarded as one of the major potentials that enable the government of various nations to improve and modernise the existing performance of the governmental institutions. The increasing extent of e-government in the global countries ensures enhancing the quality of life of the citizens for the purpose of assuring greater convenience to avail various governmental supports. The research concerning the effect of e-government in Iraq can be influenced by certain ethical concerns due to its qualitative nature.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Independence for women Essay Independence of women Speaking of womens independence, people will think of the image that women determined to fght with men in workplace. This is widely recognized in our life. In fact, the independence not only mean argue with men in the career, its about women find their own position or not. So independence is a self-understanding because it may decide you can get more personal benefit from the economic, ideological or social, and it will make you have a good attitude and new values. Women should be economically independent, and then they have qualified to talk about respect or quality. In order to make a living, unmarried women cant put hopes on marry the rich men. Many girls who always rely on rich men, over time, those men may feel tired. Because of economic problems, the girls boyfriend will have contradiction with you. If there are more and more conflicts, your feeling will fade. Moreover, Women should keep their own Job or still have economic source when they married. In chocolate movie, Josephine because of her identity has problem. She had to rely on her husband. His husband thought her life was saved by him. So he hit and humiliated her all the time. She cant get respect or equality in her family. Ideology determines womens behavior, so only being able to form their own opinions, it will make you behavior gets more approval from others. Womens behavior is their expression of ideology. People often said, wonderful thinking, wonderful life. In chocolate movie, the heroine has her own opinions. She always did everything according to her ideas. Finally she got more attention and help people change old opinions. Besides, Ideology affects womens relationships with others. Even some men like give women suggestions or ideas. If women have different mind to share with them, they may be amazed at womens thinking, and also will praise women. Social independent make women adapt to social development and change, and it leads you have more improve. Women easy to lost goal or mind in the constantly changing society. Women cant expect someone can give you ideas. In the namesake movie, the heroines husband always stays with her, and helps her figure out problems. When she lost her husband, she didnt know how to continue the rest of live. Social independence can attract more attention from others. In chocolate ovie, because of the leading lady was good at independent living, it makes people pay attention to her. Finally, they found, it leads their life to good direction. Therefore, it won more respect and love for her. All in all, women independence doesnt mean completely dependent on others, it is womens self-understanding because it can get more benefit, and it will get more love and attention from other people. So, economic, ideological or social independent is necessary for women. At the same time, I hope every woman have ability to independently, and they can play more and more important role in social life, including myself.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Many people, especially women, are plagued with fat storage in their lower bodies including their hips and thighs. Spot reduction isn't possible, and to reduce this dreaded jiggle, you must lose fat from your entire body through diet, cardio and strength training. (See References 1) A daily workout plan can keep you on track, and ensure that you're putting in the work required to reach your goal. Cardio On Most Days Cardio burns calories that can help you lose weight from your entire body including from your wobbly bits. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that adults do at least 150 minutes of moderate cardio a week. (See References 2) You can accumulate this by scheduling a 30-minute cardio session on five days of the week. Focus on leg-intense cardio that engages your hips and thighs. Go ice skating, jog, walk briskly, take a kickboxing or step-aerobics class, or use a stair climber or an elliptical machine. Strength Training Twice a Week Muscle tissue burn more calories than fat even when you're resting. (See References 3) To stimulate muscle tissue as y...
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Poker Competition If the appeal in competition is not just profit, but knowing that the profit came from anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s loss, then it is no surprise that certain Ã¢â¬Å"zero-sum gamesÃ¢â¬ dominate our world and culture. Poker is a perfect example of this American fascination with capitalism and despotic schadenfreude. This is because poker, just like any other zero-sum game, requires success and failure to be mutually inclusive. While poker is not quite in the realm of pure gambling and is not quite in the realm of pure skill, it successfully stands irresolute in the middle of it all with its ambiguous classification appealing to nearly every subset of our society. The diversity in its players is reflected in the innumerable Internet resources on the subject: sites that appeal to the gamblerÃ¢â¬âdownloadable interfaces to transform card room leisure into a domestic dalliance; sites that cater to mathematicians, economists and computer scientists in pursuit of new insights into AI programmi ng and game theory; as well as sites for the serious card player (whom should never be referred to as a gambler as this connotes a certain unacceptable level of skill!) covering the gambit of topics from poker psychology to personalized poker chips. Each poker-related website reflects this diversity of audience with respective varieties in style and information, but three specific sites aptly and obviously categorize players into the academic, the leisurely, and the professional. Respectively, they are: University of AlbertaÃ¢â¬â¢s Poker Research Group, Yahoo! Games Ã¢â¬â Poker, and Two Plus Two Publishing. The University of Alberta has set out on the moderately ambitious task of designing a poker-playing computer that can beat the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s best human player. T... ... card player and it is perfectly designed for that aim. It is not surprising that poker appeals to such a wide range of individuals or that poker sites have been created around their differences. This can be seen in all modes of competitive sport and poker is no exception. There is a contextual similarity in these sites that reflects a commonality in all poker players: win at all costs. The AI website clearly states that it exists with the intent of beating the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s best player, visitors to Two Plus Two perpetually debate why his or her particular strategy is the most valuable, and even the novice player, when learning the rules of the game, is taught foremost to be a good bluffer (liar). These websites each uniquely capture the modus operandi of the poker player, the Machiavellian spirit of VidalÃ¢â¬â¢s introductory quote, that simply winning is never enough.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Many people are under a false impression that early Native Americans are the original environmentalists. This is an impression that many people share. The Abenaki tribes that resided in Maine from 3700 BP were not by our traditional definition, environmentalists. In fact they were far from ecologically sound. This paper is meant not to criticize the Native Americans of the age, but to clarify their roles in the environment. To better understand this subject some background is needed. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Abenaki People of the Northeast led a non-permanent exististance based mostly on the seasonal flux in the region. The area of land now referred to as Maine especially. Maine has always had abrupt seasons and the Abenaki used these seasons to their advantage. Their culture is one of direct appropriation with nature. This meaning that they were a culture in which nothing was permanent. Their survival depended on mobility. The Abenaki did not utilize storage as we do now, or even as the early Europeans of the time did. For each of the four seasons they stayed in areas where they would successfully survive. For instance, the summer months were spent on the coastal regions fishing and foraging while in the winter they pulled back into the interior forests for protection and hunting. However, they did return to the same part of the forests, coasts and waterfalls where their former camps had been. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Although the Abenaki culture bent to the seasons, they dramatically shaped their surrounding environments. The Abenaki tribes would change the location of the campsites every ten to fifteen years due to a variety of reasons. The southern Abenaki tribes who performed some sort of agriculture would experience severe soil exhaustion after a decade of farming that particular piece of land. The Abenaki required enormous amounts of wood for campfires, smoking meat, building homes and cooking to name but a small few. Pest infestation was also another reason that the Abenaki would move the camp. Fleas and vermin would become extremely bothersome after time had gone by and they had become accustomed to environments. They practiced a form of clearcutting known today as anthropogenic fire, anthro meaning “human'; and pogenic meaning “induced';. They would purposely ignite massive forest fires around their encampment for a variety of reasons. These areas would bur n underbrush and smaller trees but not ignite the foliage of the huge trees. This burning was good for some forms of agriculture.
Monday, September 16, 2019
In psychology and social work, dual relationships and clinical boundaries are often common. They are often unclear and most times the professional has a difficult time noticing them developing. Ethical dilemmas are found in all professions, but are often different in type and solutions. They are hard to identify and even harder to make a clear decision. Dual relationships and clinical boundaries are one of the biggest ethical dilemmas social workers face because of the difficulties of finding the line between the professional role and the empathetic role a social worker plays.Social work is a profession that helps to solve complex human problems and create a more just and caring society. One of the foundations of social work is the focus on the strengths, as opposed to the shortcomings, of individuals, families and communities so that creative solutions for complex social problems can be found. The profession is characterized by a steadfast commitment to social justice in the service of empowering individuals, families and communities to meet their needs. Few professions offer many different types of employment opportunities.Social workers serve as counselors, in adoption, domestic violence, rehabilitation, hospice, mental health, youth, community development workers, public policy analysts, global rights workers; and in juvenile and adult justice systems, just to name a few. However, the main job of a social worker, however, is to help the client to reach a more stable environment, but to go about it a specific way dependent on the job the social worker held. Each job might come with different ethical problems, but social workers have to follow a strict code of ethics that have guidelines to help them make the correct decisions.The NASW, National Association of Social Work, is the largest group of professional social workers. It is the group that wrote the NASW code of ethics, which are followed by all social workers across the United States (NASW, 2008). Ethi cs are the underlying rules put in place to help society better function. Usually, they are hard to identify and can be interpreted in many different ways. Each person has their own ethical standards, which is why itÃ¢â¬â¢s necessary to have ethical codes that make it more general and help each professional make his or her own ethical decision.Ethics play a huge role into social work. Without an ethical background or a code of ethics it could harm not only a client, but also the social worker himself. The biggest struggle that comes along with ethics is the fact that each individual usually interprets them differently. Ethics is two things. First, ethics refers to right and wrong that advise what humans should do, in terms of rights, obligations, benefits to society, fairness, or specific virtues. Ethics can refer to those standards that make humans refrain from rape, stealing, murder, assault, slander, and fraud.Ethical standards also include ideals relating to rights, such as th e right to life, the right to freedom from injury, and the right to privacy. Secondly, ethics refers to the study and development of one's ethical standards. As mentioned above, feelings, laws, and social norms can deviate from what is ethical; therefore it is necessary to constantly examine one's standards to ensure that they are reasonable. The NASW Code of Ethics was written to serve as a guide to the everyday professional conduct of social workers. It includes four sections.The first section, Ã¢â¬Å"Preamble,Ã¢â¬ summarizes the social work profession's mission and core values. The second section, Ã¢â¬Å"Purpose of the NASW Code of Ethics,Ã¢â¬ Ã provides an overview of the Code's main functions and a brief guide for dealing with ethical issues or dilemmas in social work practice. The third section,Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Ethical Principles,Ã¢â¬ presents broad ethical principles, based on social work's core values, that inform social work practice. The final section, Ã¢â¬Å"Ethical S tandards,Ã¢â¬ Ã includes specific ethical standards to guide social workers' conduct and to provide a basis for adjudication.The Code of Ethics, as used today, was approvedÃ by the 1996 NASW Delegate Assembly and revised by the 1999 NASW Delegate Assembly. (NASW, 2008) The NASW code of ethics is used to help guide social workers when it comes to making ethical decisions in the field. It is used to help give every therapist and client the same treatment and ethical decisions. Usually, each profession has a different code of ethics due to the fact that each profession has a diverse set of ethical issues that come with it.Dual relationships or multiple relationships are interactions in which a client is treating a patient, but is also interacting with them in some other way. It can also be if a therapist is in a professional role with a person and promises to enter into another relationship in the future with that person or someone closely related to the individual. Dual roles re fer to two different roles and multiple roles are when more than two overlapping roles exist. For example if a therapist is treating their childÃ¢â¬â¢s teacher, their childÃ¢â¬â¢s friend, having sexual relations with the client, or are close to the client in some way.Dual relationships are against the APA ethics code and can cause harm to the patient in some cases. A therapist should never work with people who he or she might have to interact with on a causal level instead of a patient-therapist level, not only for the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s confidentiality, but also to help keep the therapist from giving preferential treatment (Barnett, Vasquez, Moorehead-Slaughter, Johnson, 2007) Dual relationships can also allow a therapist to misuse their power and influence. The practitioner is in a position to exploit the client for his or her own personal gain.The problem of the dual relationships and the second relationship, the counselor is now susceptible to other interests (personal, financ ial, or social) that he or she may put before the best interests of the client. Problems that arise usually occur when the professional boundaries are not clear to begin with. Therefore, boundaries should be included as part of the intake paperwork. The wording should be clear and specifically state the therapist's intentions. The therapist-client relationship is one that does not permit contact in a casual manner outside the therapy session.This includes work relationships, social conversations or any type of romantic or sexual contact. Ã¢â¬ The therapist can state something about not giving personal information to a client, as there is no need for them to know this kind of thing. If the client signs the consent form, a contract is in effect and should not be breached by either party. Not only does the therapist have to gauge the client and the way he or she processes things, but also what the client could take inappropriate.Although it may seem appropriate in a therapistÃ¢â¬â ¢s eyes it could be inappropriate in the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes and vice versa. (Syme, 2003) The therapist has to keep a close eye on their actions and make sure their client is not seeing it differently than they are. There are three factors that counselors should consider. First, there is a greater risk of harm when the expectations of client and counselor are mismatched. When clients have one set of assumptions about the ground rules of the relationship, and the professional has a different set of assumptions, there is an increased chance of susceptibility.Another factor is that there is potential for divided loyalties and an associated loss of objectivity. Counselors who have personal, social or business relationships with their clients, are at risk because their self-interest may be involved and thus compromise the client's best interest. Finally, by the very nature of the counselor/client relationship, clients are more dependent, have less authority and are vulnerable. Due to th is power differential, it is the responsibility of the professional to ensure that the client in the relationship is not harmed.One key feature of boundary issues is a conflict of interest that harms clients. Conflicts of interest occur when professionals find themselves in a relationship that could prejudice or give the appearance of prejudicing their decision-making. Thus a counselor who provides services to a client with whom he would like to develop a sexual relationship faces a conflict of interest; the professionalÃ¢â¬â¢s personal interests collide with his or her professional duty to avoid harming his or her client. Zur, American Psychological Association, 2007) Social workers should be alert to and avoid conflicts of interest that interfere with the exercise of professional discretion and impartial judgment. Social workers should also inform clients when a real or potential conflict of interest arises and take reasonable steps to resolve the issue in a manner that makes th e clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ interests primary and protects clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ interests to the greatest extent possible. In some cases, protecting clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ interests may require termination of the professional relationship with proper referral of the client (standard 1. 6[a]), NASW, 2008). The code goes on to say that Ã¢â¬Å"social workers should not engage in dual or multiple relationships with clients or former clients in which there is a risk of exploitation or potential harm to the clientÃ¢â¬ (standard 1. 06[c], NASW, 2008). While treating someone in therapy, a counselor has to be careful about how their patient is going to interpret their actions and words. When a patient is in therapy, a lot of times they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have anyone around to support them and help them overcome their obstacles.That being said, itÃ¢â¬â¢s the job of the therapist to be that person for their client and help them to succeed. As a client gets closer to his or her therapist, sometimes the slightest of t hings can be taken in the wrong way. For example, as trust is built the slightest of things can trigger a client to see their therapist in a different light. As a counselor, a pat on the back, hand touch, ect can seem like nothing to you, but to the client can seem like a sexual advance. This an be detrimental to a client and can break all the trust the therapist had built up, putting the patient back to the beginning of the process (Smith, Fitzpatrick, 1995) When the psychologist and the patient develop an extracurricular relationship, this dual relationship can threaten the psychologist's ability to act impartially as a therapist and the patient's ability to receive proper treatment in their vulnerable state. If psychologists are not held accountable to prevent this type of behavior, they can harm the reputation of all clinical psychologists.Personal relationships imply a bias and the private relationship can cross over into therapy and treatment. The term Ã¢â¬Å"conflict of inter estÃ¢â¬ applies to dual relationships because no matter how objective a psychologist tries to be, their own emotions may taint their trained perceptions. Conflict of interest can be applied to a variety of situations, such as the psychologist should not treat a family member or close friend due to the possibility of favoritism or being non-objective, and could interfere with the treatment being given and received.The psychological ethical codes clearly prohibit the interaction of a personal relationship between the psychologist and the client. Dual relationships and clinical boundaries are one of the biggest ethical dilemmas social workers are faced with; trying to find the line between the professional role and the empathetic role a social worker plays. This being said, as a social worker it is important to distance the client, but also to build trust. It takes time to learn the boundaries and how to avoid crossing them.This is just one of the biggest challenges social workers h ave to overcome in their field. Reference Page: Barnett J, Lazarus A, Vasquez M, Moorehead-Slaughter O, Johnson W (2007) Boundary Issues and Multiple Relationships: Fantasy and Reality; Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 38 (4) 401-410 doi: 10. 1037/0735-7028. 38. 4. 401 Herlihy, B and Corey G. (1992) Dual Relationships in Counseling. Alexandria, VA: American Association for Counseling Development Reamer, G. F. PhD (2011, October 13). Eye on Ethics Social Work Today, retrieved from http://www. socialworktoday. om/news/eoe_101311. shtml Smith, D. and Fitzpatrick, M. (1995) Patent-Therapist Boundary Issues: An Integrative Review of Theory and Research, Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 26 (5), 499-506 doi: 10. 1037/0735-7028. 26. 5. 499 Syme, G (2003) Dual Relationships in Counseling and Psychotherapy: Exploring the Limits, London: Sage Publications Zur, O and American Psychological Association (2007) Boundaries in Psychotherapy Ethical and Clinical Explorat ions. Washington, DC : American Psychological Association http://www. socialworkers. org/pubs/code/code. asp
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Kiwi Series #1 My choice of artwork for this essay is titled Kiwi Series # 1. This painting is made by Dennis Wojtkiewicz in 2005. The size of this painting is 36 by 66 inches. The medium used in this painting is the oil on canvas. I chose this painting because it appeals to my sense of aesthetics and also it has the most interesting use of texture. This painting is an excellent example of our sight being able to activate other senses. The presentation of the translucent fruit and fuzzy skin is so convincing that we have a visual and a tactile reaction and for some, a sensation of taste.The painter has used actual texture in this painting. In this essay, I will talk about the subject matter and then the content. I will also be analyzing each element and principle of design in the painting's composition in an attempt to look at it much more deeply and understand it better. Kiwi Series # 1 is a painting of aÃ kiwi fruit, which is cut into half. It is placed on a table or some hard su rface. The painter has drawn every little detail of the fruitÃ in the painting. The seeds, the internal minor lines in the fruit, and the difference in textures are done with great enthusiasm and passion.This painting makes me calm and relaxed because of the colors used in this painting and also its overall appearance. The Elements: There are different kinds of lines used in this painting. The artist has used some curvy lines near the edge and the center of the fruit. Straight lines are also used in this painting. Some lines are thick and some are thin, separating the seeds and the showing the opaqueness of some parts. The painting itself is a rectangle shape. TheÃ shape of the fruit is objective. There are many other smaller shapes in the painting. The shape of the seeds is oval.The center of the fruit gives kind of semi-circle look. The row of the seeds looks like a thin petal ofÃ a flower. The fruit itself is looking like a semi-circle. There is a great amount of contrast. This paintingÃ has a photography value in which theÃ artist has used light part against theÃ darkÃ part. Chiaroscuro is also evident due to the illusion of light and shadow as the light source is coming from the top. Casting shadow on the table. There are areas of strong contrast such as the light color of fruit against the dark background. Sfumato is also evident in this painting.The dark colors of the seeds also create contrast against the light color of the fruit. Also there is contrast of the seeds against the brightÃ area near it. The color is a local color as it replicates the appearance of the real world. The colors are natural. The fruit is green and light green in color. The seeds are black. A slight brown color is also used near the edge of the fruit. The texture is simulated. If someone would touch this painting, they would feel slight bumps of the paint. For the most part, the artist has simulated the texture of the fruit.The background of the painting appears to be smooth. There is not much space in the painting. The figure is right at the forefront of the painting so the painting has shallow space. The background is darkÃ and we could not see anything except the fruit. Principles: The balance in this painting is symmetrical. The right side is very similar to the left side. If I were to draw a line in the middle of this painting, the visual weight on both sides of the painting would be the same. The painting is populated almost the same on both sides.The dominant part in this painting is the half-cut kiwi fruit. It occupies almost 85% of the space of the painting. Kiwi fruit is the biggest thing in the painting and it is the most important aspect of the subject matter. The same shape of the seeds in the painting creates harmony. Also the bright row that contains seeds is also of the same shape so they are the unifying factor in this painting. This work is not economical at all. There is a great amount of details and attention given to the figure. In my opinion it is highly realistic and the artist has drawn it with great interest.
Cathal McCabe PO4107 Id# 085475 Word count: 3290 Which strategies for conflict resolution would you employ in cases of violent ethnic conflict? Explain why giving examples of success and or failure. 3,534 in Northern Ireland. Approximately 140,000 in Former Yugoslavia. Approximately 800,000 in Rwanda. The list goes on. Violent ethnic conflict is simply a harsh reality of life that has cost millions of innocent civilians their lives.We have witnessed its atrocities first hand in our lifetimes, and have sometimes felt powerless as individuals to curtail it. We can employ successful strategies for conflict resolution but the question really is how do we implement them successfully? There are strategies working, but the key now is to identify the successful strategies and be quicker to implement them in the future. In July 2010 Stefan Wolff declared that casualties from ethnic conflict have decreased by two-thirds in just over a decade Ã¢â¬â 12,000 killed in ethnic wars of 1997/1998, today this figure stands at just over 4,000 (Wolff, 2010).Ethnic conflict is unlikely to ever go away, but the death toll has reduced somewhat. Is reducing the death toll the best success we can hope for in resolving conflict? Will ethnic conflict ever go way or can we only moderate the violence? Have we eventually learned that war is not the answer or have we simply become more efficient at peacekeeping? Are these deaths simply down to ethnic pride or is there another reason which spurs man on to kill his own people? This essay will attempt to determine the true meaning and motives for ethnic conflict.It will then examine what the Ã¢â¬Å"strategiesÃ¢â¬ for resolving ethnic conflict are, and examine the application of these strategies as the causes and resolutions to various conflicts throughout the globe. It will draw a helpful analysis of the cases of Rwanda as a failure and Northern Ireland as a success and what we can learn from it. Ultimately it will try and discover what th e best strategies for conflict resolution are in order to minimise the trail of destruction left behind by violent ethnic conflictÃ¢â¬ ¦US President John Adams once asked Ã¢â¬Å"Do I have to study politics and war so that my sons may have the liberty to study mathematics and philosophyÃ¢â¬ ? We must first look into the reasoning of ethnic conflict before we can achieve peace and freedom. The theories behind the motives for violent ethnic conflict are rooted in the origins of nationalism. Connor Walker describes the nation state as Ã¢â¬Å"a state that self-identifies as deriving its political legitimacy from serving as a sovereign entity for a nation as a sovereign territorial unitÃ¢â¬ (Walker, 2004, P. 2). Theorists argue that this is an evolution from the simple meaning of the word Ã¢â¬Å"nationÃ¢â¬ (a community that share a common ancestry) per se. Ethnic conflict may simply be a process of evolution as nations look to establish themselves and represent a community of bel onged people -the citizens. Perhaps there must be a common bond for a nation to remain at peace. Anthony Smith notes that Ã¢â¬Ënot only must nations be founded upon ethnic cores if they are to endureÃ¢â¬â¢ (Smith, 1986, p. 207).Therefore if a nation is colonised or artificially planted with a different tribe, a friction is likely to occur. This of course is the starting point of ethnic war. Ethnic violence ensues. By studying the origins of their motives we can understand their ailment better and itÃ¢â¬â¢s then easier to cure. The very first rule in employing successful strategies is having a deep understanding of the motives of the conflict. Engaging in conflict resolution without knowing the full purposes of the conflict is political recklessness.We must sympathise before we can strategize (Hutchinson, Breuilly, and Smith, 1994, P. 104). Nationalism and ethnic identity are the core tenets of ethnic conflict hence the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"ethno-nationalismÃ¢â¬ . Extreme nationalis ts will harbour a need for identity and this involves being amongst their own citizens. It is these very people, extreme nationalists, who are the principle actors in ethnic conflict; itÃ¢â¬â¢s essentially a mass crusade driven by unsatisfied nationalists (Hastings, 1997, p. 27).Ethnic conflict therefore is in lay manÃ¢â¬â¢s terms is the struggle for man to be amongst his own people in a community. Furthermore they are likely to want this community to be the chief and sole power in a nation as in the case of the Hutu and Tutsi tribes in Rwanda. The one question that remains to be answered however is why experts believe that ethnic conflict has become more prevalent since the Cold war? Academics like Samuel Huntington predicted a proliferation of conflicts fuelled by tribalism, resource scarcity and overpopulation (Huntington, 1993, P. 2). The reality is that this period witnessed a rise in ethnically-informed secessionist movements Ã¢â¬â mainly in the former communist states like in Former Yugoslavia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. Wallensteen and Sollenberg hold that Ã¢â¬Å"the displacements of capitalist states were accompanied by a decline in total warfare, ethnic wars and the number of refugees and displaced personsÃ¢â¬ (Wallensteen and Sollenberg, 1995, P. 350). Ethnic conflict certainly seems to be a Ã¢â¬Å"new phraseÃ¢â¬ but the reality is that unrest and disillusionment always occurred in states.ItÃ¢â¬â¢s also a certainty that itÃ¢â¬â¢s in manÃ¢â¬â¢s natural instinct to defend himself and what he loves until he is secure and established Ã¢â¬â much like his state. Each case of violent ethnic conflict is different, but the motives remain largely the same. Those who plan strategies for ethnic conflict should be well briefed on the case. Understanding is crucial; otherwise the results are severeÃ¢â¬ ¦ There are common themes in the raison d'etre of ethnic nationalist violence Ã¢â¬â lack of belonging, lack of understanding and a lack of t rue leadership. Edward Everett once said that Ã¢â¬Å"education is a better safeguard of liberty than a standing armyÃ¢â¬ .ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the very people who commit the atrocities that donÃ¢â¬â¢t have these basic needs. The case of Rwanda provides us with the perfect breeding ground for violent ethnic conflict Ã¢â¬â uneducated peoples led by a brainwashed Government. In April 1994 two tribes strived for these basic needs as a longstanding ethnic struggle culminated with 20% of an entire population being wiped out by genocide. This case provides us with all the ingredients of mismanagement of conflict strategy which only coerced further violence Ã¢â¬â approximately 800,000 deaths in just over 100 days.It was managed so badly that it prompted former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan to declare in 2000 that Ã¢â¬Å"the international community failed Rwanda and that must always leave us with a bitter sense of regretÃ¢â¬ (Doyle, BBC, 2004). In this case the minority Tutsi tribe wer e overthrown by the Hutu tribe in the rebellion of 1959-62. The Tutsi tribe looked to seize back power when the RPF (Rwandan Patriotic Front Ã¢â¬â a Tutsi dominated rebel group) invaded Rwanda from the Ugandan border. The small East African country was in crisis until an eventual ceasefire in 1993 with assistance from neighbours Tanzania.This however came to an abrupt end in April 1994 when leader Habyarimana was assassinated by the RPF leader Paul Kagame (Hintjens, 2008, P. 5-7). The HutuÃ¢â¬â¢s responded with mass slaughter (genocide) of the TutsiÃ¢â¬â¢s and their own people who they believed to be collaborationists. The ceasefire in 1993 provided Rwanda with an opportunity to resolve the conflict peacefully but as we will see the Government provided weak strategies to consolidate the peace. The only solace we can take from 1994 is what we can learn from it in order to strategize better in the future.All the elements are present to encourage violent ethnic conflict; the str ategies employed only incited more violence. In Rwanda there was a lack of education at all levels, from the people on the ground right up to brainwashed Government officials who were obsessed by power and sought to accomplish it all costs. Education comes from liberal thinking, being open to a variety of sources and having the resources in place to attain this (Dewey, 1994, P2). None of this was possible in a country of authoritarian rule with little choice or democracy for voters.The then incumbent Prime Minister Jean Kambanda revealed in his testimony before the International Criminal Tribunal that genocide was openly discussed at cabinet meetings, and that the people believed that RwandaÃ¢â¬â¢s problems would be over without the Tutsi (Doyle, BBC 2004). The people were blinded by myths; they believed that peace pacifists were collaborating with the other side. A large part of this comes down to how the media was run. The HutuÃ¢â¬â¢s controlled the radio and the many who coul d not read bought into their propaganda campaign (Melvern, 2006, P. 7).For those who could read would read the Hutu run journal Ã¢â¬Å"KanguraÃ¢â¬ , and its Ã¢â¬Å"ten commandmentsÃ¢â¬ , one of which being Ã¢â¬Å"the Hutu should have no mercy on the TutsiÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ (Melvern, 2004, P. 49). The ancestral divide in Rwanda called for conflict resolving strategies to be put in place. Instead the authorities increased the divide by insisting on Ã¢â¬Å"tribal IDÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ and encouraging identification myths about the other tribe such as skin colour etc. The Government for their part organised two militia groups to assist the killings Ã¢â¬â the Interahamwe and Impuzamugambi (Melvern, 2006, pp. 4-27). We can still see the effects of poor leadership today as Libya has been torn apart under the Gaddafi regime. Ethnic conflict like this highlights the importance of citizens to fight for democracy, to fight for freedom, and fight for choice. The leader of a country has a monu mental bearing on the outcomes of a nation. We must fight for our freedom to choose. This involves participating in democracy to help maintain it (Diamond, 2009, P. 12). Strategy starts on the ground with the citizens; afterwards power is vested in the Government.Unfortunately in Rwanda a corrupt power influenced the media, which in turn corrupted an unwitting population. Sometimes history and circumstances can be unfortunate on a country like Rwanda and the people may have little choice. A country in trouble may often require outside assistance to attain peace. This is a major factor why Rwanda failed and Kofi AnnanÃ¢â¬â¢s words pay testament to this. In their hour of need Tanzania, other neighbouring countries and the UN were helpless. Rwanda was ultimately left with nothing but warmongering strategies and this is why it failed.A case like Rwanda needs outside help, and hopefully we have learned to be more responsive. Unfortunately the circumstances were ideal for genocide in Rw anda which probably afforded the outside forces with little chance. Ultimately there was no democracy in the strategy in Rwanda. The natives and outside forces were powerless to strategize effectively and the result is a lesson we must take to future conflicts. The Northern Irish story began in 1609 with the Ulster plantations, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The TroublesÃ¢â¬ which are commonly understood as beginning in the sixties (McGarry, OÃ¢â¬â¢Leary, 1995, P. 18).The violence was led by the armed campaigns of the IRA (Irish Republican Army) and UVF (Ulster Volunteer Force). Alongside the violence, there was a political deadlock between the major political parties in Northern Ireland over the future status of Northern Ireland and the prospective form of government. On learning from the case of Rwanda we now can now examine successful strategies for conflict resolution. . In May 2007 two men from contrasting backgrounds (Martin McGuinness and Ian Paisley) met at Stormont and finally shook hands, sealing a horrible conflict that sentenced 3,534 people to early deaths.However 4 years later on June 20th of this year and the violence threatened to escalate againÃ¢â¬ ¦ Attaining peace may be a greater challenge than ever in two communities of disenfranchised people. Assuming that fair democracy is being practiced the responsibility now rests with the powers that be Ã¢â¬â the Government. The role of the leader is central, a leader is the figurehead for an interest group and his/her attitude towards a conflict will be examined carefully (Ackerman, 2002, p. 32). In 1997 Ireland and Britain elected new Governments. Both leaders Bertie Ahern and Tony Blair made the Northern question a priority.Tony BlairÃ¢â¬â¢s first reaction in the North was to hand down the gauntlet to the IRA who refused to abide by a ceasefire at the time (incidentally a year before the Omagh bombings). Tony Blair stated Ã¢â¬Å"my message to Sinn Fein is clear. The settlement train is leaving. I want you on that train. But it is leaving anyway and I will not allow it to wait for youÃ¢â¬ . The impetus that the new leaders brought to the table was a positive strategy; they brought a renewed energy and innovation reinvigorating the campaign. The primary strategy for solving conflict is peace-talks and negotiation.This involves compromises, consensus-building and some level of mutual trust. The party leader must earn this and their personality is a key factor in an attempt to reach an agreement. A peace agreement or accord is a formal commitment between hostile parties to end a war. In the North a simple ceasefire wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t enough, a state with its own Government had to be established (Bew, 1994, p. 32). Regardless of the political decisions made, negotiators have to prepare for Ã¢â¬Å"spoilersÃ¢â¬ (groups that have an interest in sabotaging the process) and public rejection of settlements.When the public has experienced significant trauma, it may not be ready to ma ke compromises or accept a negotiated solution, as happened repeatedly in the North. It is the task of the leadership to generate support for peace. The personality of the parties involved is a very significant in making peace talks a successful strategy. Peace talks are the primary means of conflict resolution so it could be said that appointing the right negotiation team is a fundamental strategy to success, which thankfully it was in May 2007.Leaders have a role to play outside of peace talks too. The Ã¢â¬Å"ambassadorialÃ¢â¬ role in everyday society involves sharing with people who have suffered. Diplomacy is at the heart of conflict resolution strategy. It shows that a Government cares and is still in control in a society that still abides by law and order. In August 1998, Mary McAleese walked the streets of Omagh consoling the victims, while her husband Martin visited familes of UVF militants. This showed that they were not isolated but that the World cared, Ireland cared a nd there was an urgency to end the conflict.This was above strategy, it made strategy essential. Peace had to be achieved, and the leaders were relentless until it was achieved. Dr. Matt Cannon explained the need for a multi-level approach at a lecture in October. This involves all levels of the community coming together, the Government uniting and external sources showing interest in resolving conflict (Cannon, 2011). All tiers are uniting to create a powerful peace-building team. In Guatemala and Northern Ireland, civil society forums were established to promote wider societal involvement in the peace process.The terms Ã¢â¬Å"third sideÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"track threeÃ¢â¬ are sometimes used to describe the effort of engaging and uniting individuals at the community level to generate Ã¢â¬Å"peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s power,Ã¢â¬ public opinion and coalitions in support of peace. In Northern Ireland the communities have come together to rally against the violence and promote peace which is a massive help to the process. One practical example was the replacement of sectarian murals with peace-walls. A common memory and identity is now being created in Northern Ireland. A segregated community is being replaced by a common identity.Both sides are remembering each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s losses and giving up something for the common good. There is now evidence of shared features such as memorials, museums and holidays which are also finally being reflected by a common Government. Dennis Murray worked for most of his career as Northern Ireland correspondent for the BBC. This September BBC filmed a documentary covering his reporting of the Troubles. The documentary finished with MurrayÃ¢â¬â¢s parting thought Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"we canÃ¢â¬â¢t build a new future without unravelling the past.The story of conflict in Northern Ireland will never finishÃ¢â¬ (From Our Ireland correspondent, 2011). The case of the Troubles is as close as we may ever come to conflict resolution and itÃ¢â¬ â¢s equally fascinating to analyse the strategies employed in this quest. The strategy that now needs to be employed in the North is maintaining peace. There may be no textbook strategy to resolving conflict; it is an ongoing effort to maintain peace in Northern Ireland. Each case is different. Peacemaking in Northern Ireland is a model for resolving ethnic conflict resolution throughout the World.The one factor that appears to be in Northern IrelandÃ¢â¬â¢s favour as opposed to Rwanda however is that Northern Ireland was a developed country with a better environment to carry out a conflict resolution. The first virtues in successful conflict resolution are patience and persistence. In Northern Ireland there was a persistence to achieve an end to violence and achieve peace by successful political means. The security forces in Northern Ireland enforced the law. This strategy of law enforcement brought the paramilitaries to realisation that they could not win (Ruane and Todd, 1996, P. 17).There was no overnight solution to ending the violence. The British Government admitted that the IRA could not be eliminated militarily. Utimately ethnic violence is a force. It requires a strong team to defeat it. International interest strengthens a peacebuilding team massively. Bill ClintonÃ¢â¬â¢s regime shared an interest in the Troubles and appointed George Mitchell as special envoy. He was presented with the Liberty Medal in 1998, where he stated: Ã¢â¬Å"I believe thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no such thing as a conflict that canÃ¢â¬â¢t be ended. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re created and sustained by human beings. They can be ended by human beings.No matter how ancient the conflict, no matter how hateful, no matter how hurtful, peace can prevailÃ¢â¬ (Mitchell, 1998). Northern Ireland now had a combat team, this is where Rwanda failed where external sources were powerless. A case of violent ethnic conflict that becomes unmanageable is referred to the UN. The United Nations was established to r eplace the flawed League of Nations in 1945 in order to maintain international peace and promote cooperation. Peacekeeping is a primary mission on the UN with the aim of helping countries torn by conflict and creating the conditions for lasting peace.It is the last resort following peacemaking and peacebuilding (Bellamy, Williams and Griffin, 2004, P. 5). The United Nations Charter gives the United Nations Security Council the power and responsibility to take collective action to maintain international peace and security. For this reason, the international community usually looks to the Security Council to authorise peacekeeping operations. The role of peacekeepers is to help uphold any agreements made during peacetalks. Peacekeeping provided ways to achieve self-sustaining peace.Another viewpoint raises the problem that the peacekeeping may soften the troops and erode their combat ability, as the mission profile of a peacekeeping contingent is totally different from the profile of a unit fighting an all-out war. Before peacekeepers should be deployed theUN has a role in providing assistance in the development of human rights an democracy in the various countries and preventing these countries from becoming a breeding ground for ethnic conflict like Rwanda was (Jasper, 2001, P89). The UN also has a role to encourage more women to become involved in conflict resolution.The lack of involvement for women has a negative impact on resolving conflict and in society. In this essay we have seen what works as successful strategies for conflict resolution. First of all we must be vigilant and defend democracy Ã¢â¬â preventing conflict from occuring in the first place. We must also uphold law and order as a combat to violence. We must participate in peace and democracy and elect the right leaders and believe in their charismea and diplomacy to solve conflict. We must also acknowledge the roles of member and identity in building an imagined community as part of a three -tier approach.The top tier of UN involvement is only required in times of desperation. Ultimately ethno-nationalism will never go away but violence can. As George Mitchell declared on appointment Ã¢â¬Å"there is no place for violence at the table of democracyÃ¢â¬ . Bibliography Ackerman R (2002), The Wounded Leader: How Real Leadership Emerges in Times of Crisis, Jossey-Bass, P. 32 Bellamy A, Williams P, Griffin S (2004), Understanding Peacekeeping, Polity, P. 5 Bew P (1994), Ideology and the Irish question: Ulster unionism and Irish nationalism, 1912-1916, Oxford : OUP, P. 2 Cannon M (2011), Ã¢â¬Å"Achieving peace in Northern IrelandÃ¢â¬ , Speech on October 25th, University of Limerick. Dewey, John (1944). Democracy and Education, The Free Press. pp. 1Ã¢â¬â4 Diamond L (2009), The Spirit of Democracy: The Struggle to Build Free Societies Throughout the World, St. Martin's Griffin, P. 12. Doyle M, (2004-03-26), UN chief's Rwanda genocide regret, BBC, available: http://news. b bc. co. uk/2/hi/africa/3573229. stm [accessed: 2011-11-12] Doyle M (2004-03-26), Ex-Rwandan PM reveals genocide planning, BBC, available: http://news. bbc. co. uk/2/hi/africa/3572887. tm [accessed: 2011-11-12] From our Ireland correspondent (2011), BBC, Monday 3 October at 10. 35pm Hastings, Adrian, (1997), Ã¢â¬Å"The construction of nationhood: ethnicity, religion, and nationalismÃ¢â¬ , Cambridge Press, P27. Hintjens Helen, (2008), Ã¢â¬ËPost-genocide identity politics in RwandaÃ¢â¬â¢ Ethnicities, Vol. 8, No. 1, P. 5-7 Hutchinson, Breuilly, and Smith (1994), Nationalism, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, P. 104 Huntington, Samuel (1993) The clash of civilizations? Foreign Affairs 72(3), pp. 22-49 Jasper W (2001), United Nations exposed, John Birch Society, P. 9 McGarry, J, O'Leary B (1995) Explaining Northern Ireland. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 18 Melvern, Linda, (2004) Conspiracy to Murder: The Rwandan Genocide, 1st ed. London: Verso, 2004, P. 49 Melvern, Linda, (2006), Conspi racy to Murder: The Rwandan Genocide, 2nd. ed. , London: Verso, P. 7 Mitchell G (1998), Liberty Medal acceptance speech, speech on July 4, 1998. Available: http://www. constitutioncenter. org/libertymedal/recipient_1998. html [accessed: 2011-10-08] Ruane, J and Todd J (1996) The Dynamics of Conflict in Northern Ireland: Power, Conflict and Emancipation.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. P. 17 Smith, Anthony (1986) The Ethnic Origins of Nations. Oxford: Blackwell. Wallensteen P and Sollenberg M (1995) After the Cold War: Emerging patterns of armed conflict 1989-94, Journal of Peace Research 32(3), pp. 345-360 Walker C (2004), The Timelessness of Nations. Nations and Nationalism, New York: Alfred Knopf. Wolff S (2010), Ã¢â¬Å"There is no good news about ethnic conflict and civil warÃ¢â¬ ¦or is there? Ã¢â¬ , Speech in July 2010, Oxford, Available: http://www. frequency. com/video/stefan-wolff/506736? raw=true [accessed: 2011-10-23]
Saturday, September 14, 2019
When the word discrimination is brought up there is an automatic negative response, due to the fact that most have this idea that there is only bad discrimination. This comes from people using stereotypes and being prejudice which creates detrimental situations. However, when a person discriminates it does not mean they are trying to be harmful. Discrimination is when one distinctively favors or is against certain groups, categories, people, and classes and or things that may come from them. Discrimination itÃ¢â¬â¢s self is not bad, but the things that can stem from it, are actually what makes people look at it negatively. People discriminate for many reasons such as religion, race, and even for business and employment. It is one thing to have a preference over something else but to actually deny a person over what race, or religion they are is perverse. Now there are some positives when decisions are made about things depending on an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s race or religion. There are people who only want to date or marry to the same race, religion, culture, category, class, and things like that. And that does not always mean that they are being racist, stereotypical, prejudice or anything of that nature but that they simple are particular. There are even laws that require for workplaces to accommodate for their employees religion just along their religious practices will not bring problems to the employer. However, in the eyes of the employer they may feel as though if they indeed hire someone with certain beliefs that conflict may arise even if they are unintentional, and a decision maybe made to avoid that. Which is a decent argument but it still is a form of discrimination. One of the biggest reasons people discriminate is that they are actually afraid of what they may or may not understand. Ã¢â¬Å"The fear of that which is different, that which we do not understand, could have been an adaptive strategy early on in our historyÃ¢â¬ (Why Does Discrimination Occur?. Ehow. com ). Instead of learning how to live with something and become more educated about it they cast it out. Especially if it is something that it out of the norm, or different. Such as homosexuality, a lot of people are homophobic. They have an unreasonable fear of homosexuals and which they may have their reasons as to why. Some people take it past the limits to make people are attracted to the same sex feel different, unaccepted, or unwanted all because they are ignorant of that culture. They have no idea what it is like and instead of trying to comprehend, they use negativity. Now there is nothing wrong with not being gay, and disagreeing with it but an opinion does not have to be expressed in a way that may be harmful. Just because a person is not apart of a certain group does not excuse the act of disrespecting another group or category. A lot of individuals will argue that it is simply wrong, and that it should not be permitted due to religious reasoning. Yes, that does make a lot of since, but I am very sure that many people do things that go against their religion all the time, they just happen to be discrete. Some people are afraid or have been brought up to not over step the boundaries so when others do not abide by the same rules they are automatically looked down upon. Society assigns everyone a certain social identity. Which ever category a person is placed they tend to accept others who are from the same group as they are. Prejudice is derived from our tendency to divide world into Ã¢â¬ËusÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËthemÃ¢â¬ ( Musa, Prejudice Discrimination and Stereotype). This causes great division between people which is one of the reasons why a lot of people categorize other individuals. Being that prejudice, discrimination, and stereotype are in society there are social aspects and effects. Ã¢â¬Å"Exposure to derogatory ethnic labels can elicit conformity pressures with people wanting to fit-inÃ¢â¬ ( Musa, Prejudice Discrimination and Stereotype). Generally people fear to be outcast so they go with the crowd. Afraid that if they choose not to agree then they might become socially unexpected. Ã¢â¬Å"People can reduce their reliance on stereotypes by consciously saying Ã¢â¬ËnoÃ¢â¬â¢ to association between stereotypes and specific social groupsÃ¢â¬ ( Musa, Prejudice Discrimination and Stereotype). It would make a lot of since for people to simply not discriminate sadly that simply will not happen. Either way it may go it is up to the person on what they will choose to do, but social impact has a lot to do with the decisions people make. Ã¢â¬Å"Social influence plays a role in both maintenance and reduction discrimination, prejudice, and stereotypes. Evidence suggesting that members of their group hold less prejudiced views are out of line with most people of their group, they may change their views. Ã¢â¬ ( Musa, Prejudice Discrimination and Stereotype). Ã¢â¬Å"It may be conceived that because someone is guilty of discrimination that she is mean, angry and hateful, which very well may be the case. However, when we understand that within us all lies some form of discrimination, whether passive or aggressive, it should once again lead us to the conclusion that, of course, it is very easy to discriminate. (Why Is It So Easy To Discriminate? , eHow. com). Every person has their preferences, how they choose to go about them is completely their discretion. There are those who are prejudice, stereotypical, and who discriminate negatively acknowledge it and own up to it. Ã¢â¬Å"Each and every one of us stereotype and have a prejudice of something. Every single one of us. I stereotype fat people. I make fun of them, I call them lazy. Is it right? No. Should people suffering from obesity be kept from living their lives because of my prejudice and stereotypes of them? Absolutely not. Ã¢â¬ (Kriss 2010). Those who do discriminate have a point of view and some respectively explain them. Kriss discriminates against fat people, does she have that right? Yes, she knows that she should not do it, but she still stands by her opinion no matter what anyone else thinks. Everyone discriminates to a center extent because everyone has their own opinions, and make their own decision with different dependents. Yet and still there things that are wrong which happen to be connected to discriminating and even misconceptions. The way a person behaves is by far their own choice. People are raised differently, have different life experiences, and choose to surround themselves with certain crowds that may differ from others. There are exceptions and there are non exceptions, but being close minded will bring nothing but ignorance. There will always be discrimination because everyone will always have a preference. and there is really nothing that can be done about it. Also prejudice and stereotypes that comes with life. Everything has a positive and a negative.
Friday, September 13, 2019
Mythical Man Month - Essay Example It is only after IT based business house developing and altering large potential customers that the requirement has raised to develop latest and new software's and hardware. Necessity is the mother of invention. As w all know, we tend to learn only when there is a need to. To compete with the new requirement software engineering has evolved over the years and trying to perform to the core. In fact learning in the software engineering course is phenomenal over the years. The software and the supporting hardware, which we have now, were not available in those days. The software companies in olden days were lagging in planning, coding, scheduling and repartitioning. Now a days planning and scheduling has become organized and well treated aspect of development. Software test has come a long way over the decades. The testing techniques now has grown in numbers and are able to test the developed software using different tools within no time. Testing engines have learnt a lot from the developed versions of testing techniques. It is sure that over the years IT companies have learnt a lot as how to make profit within minimum number of employees for a particular project. In olden days training used to play a vital role before the project is assigned to teams. Every member of the team is initially trained almost for a month. Then comes scheduling the project and assigning the modules to the team members. Number of members per team is the key aspect for a project. Since each employee must have almost three times of communication between the team. As the number of team members' increase then there should be three times more communication per each employee for the successful completion of the project. It is almost like closing a fire with gasoline if we increase the number employees for project. Because there should be perfect communication between the team if the number of employees are increased or it ends in to a disaster like if we keep on closing a fire with gasoline. The skill and interlining of the employees has also shown a phenomenal growth over the decades. Until recently software developed were small and the client requirement was also not so demanding. But at the perfect age requirements are matching global standards. Silver bullet in this context is a weapon, a tool to suppress the horrors created by the software bugs and errors. The intention is to use the silver bullets, which can magically lay the errors and bugs to rest. Software developing does find many difficulties. There are no silver bullets available for software. There are no substantial inventions in this field. Considering the inherent properties and irreducible essence of software system, the following are the problems faced by software engineering: Complexity Conformity Changeability Invisibility Software is too complex than human construct. Since no two parts are alike. Similar parts are generally made as a subroutine. Computers are the complex products. This inherent complexity makes conceiving desirability no difficult in a more simply way to classify the software entity is that they are not repletion of the different elements. The elements interact with each other in a non-linear fashion there by increasing the complexity more than linearly. Software entities in olden days use to suffer a lot due to hardware constraints since software are developed
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Lucretia of Rembrandt - Essay Example This second version, painted in 1666, portrays Lucretia moments after she had plunged the knife into her heart. What follows is a discussion of the composition and technique used in Rembrandt's 1666 Lucretia. It includes such factors as placing, pose and expression of the figure, the use of colour, tonal range, and lighting effects. Finally, it ends with Rembrandt's treatment of the female virtue. Placing. In the world of art, the technique of tenebrism is used in this painting. Tenebrism refers to a stark contrast of dark and light shades within a painting such as utilized in Lucretia. Rembrandt places Lucretia in the foreground of the painting and sets her against a dark background. Lucretia then appears jumping out or moving into the viewer's space. As such Rembrandt involves the viewer, which helps convey the dramatic and emotionally wrenching scene. Pose and expression of the figure. Rembrandt's excellent attention to detail allows the viewer to observe the intricate designs on Lucretia. The model is dressed in a decorative, highly stylized dress indicating enormous wealth. The head of Lucretia is bent to one side and lowered a little as though in shame and in anguish. At the left portion of her white robe is a long streak of dripped blood. The white robe appears slashed beyond comfortable length in the middle of her bosom, indicating unwelcome hands. On the weighty left hand of Lucretia, she holds a string hanging from higher space as though just by a slight pull she would be lifted up in deathly space. Round her neck is the ready loop of the noose. On her right hand is a dagger pointed to herself, ready to harm. From just the sight of blood stains, however, she might as well have already cut herself to death and is slowly dying. There is an expressed effort to die by all means in Lucretia. Meanwhile, the face is that of loneliness and resignation from life. She appears to have cried so much in her despair. Use of colour. There is a fantastic element of colour coordination throughout this painting of Rembrandt. The colour of the rope, her fluffy white silk cuffs, her silky blouse, and her golden jewellery shows continuity of colour. Tonal range. Tone is important to painting, perhaps even more than color. Tone is how light or dark a color is, rather than what the actual color is. Implementing tone in a painting is often bothersome to artists because people get distracted by the strong appeal of color. The master of color, Henri Matisse, said (in his A Painter's Notes, 1908): "When I have found the relationship of all the tones, the result must be a living harmony of all the tones, a harmony not unlike that of a musical composition." In other words, if a painting is going to be successful, the artist must get his tones right, otherwise it's just going to be visual noise. In Lucretia, Rembrandt had no problem about tonal range. Every element went in harmony with each other. Lighting effects. There are tricky details with lighting effects such as the falling cushion and pearls, caught symbolically in Lucretia's shift. Movement is downward as though expressing some undressing not by the subject but by an outside force that is not welcome. The cushion is