Saturday, August 31, 2019

Basics of the Operating System

Heather RussellNT1430 Unit 1 Chapter Exercises Unit 1 Chapter 1 1. What is free software? List three characteristics of free software. Free software is software that users have the freedom to distribute and change. The three main characteristics of free software are: The source code has to be distributed with the program, you cannot restrict people from redistributing/modifying/using the software, and users must be allowed to redistribute modified versions under the same terms/licensing. 4.What is the Free Software Foundation/GNU? What is Linux? Which parts of the Linux operating system did each provide? Who else has helped build and refine this operating system? GNU stands for â€Å"GNU'S Not Unix†, and it was designed to be a UNIX-like operating system developed by Richard Stallman. Linux is the name of operating system kernel developed by Linus Torvalds. GNU's tools aside the Linux kernel make the operating system known as â€Å"Linux† aka â€Å"GNU/Linux†. Th ousands of people helped refine the operating system online.Chapter 2 1. Briefly, what does the process of installing an operating system such as Fedora/RHEL involve? Installing Fedora/RHEL is the process of copying operating system files from a CD, DVD, or USB flash drive to hard disk(s) on a system and setting up configuration files so Linux runs properly on the hardware. Several types of installations are possible, including fresh installations, upgrades from older releases of Fedora/RHEL, and dual-boot installations Chapter 3 1. What is a live system?What advantages does it have over an installed system? A live system gives you a chance to preview Fedora without installing it. It does not write to hard disks. 4. Where on the disk should you put your /boot partition or the root(/) partition if you do not use a /boot partition? Put /boot at the beginning of the drive (partition 1) so that there is no issue of Linux having to boot from a partition too far into the drive. 8. When do es a Fedora/RHEL system start X by default? When the system enters Run Level 5Chapter 11 1 How does single-user mode differ from multiuser mode? When a system is in single-user mode, you can log in only at the console. Not all of the filesystems are mounted, and many daemons are not running. With the system in multiuser mode you can log in at any terminal or workstation that is set up for login, most or all of the filesystems are mounted, and all of the daemons that your system is set up to run are running. 3 What do the letters of the su command stand for? Hint: It is not Superuser. ) What can you do with su besides give yourself Superuser privileges? How would you log in as Zach if you did not know his password but knew the root password? How would you establish the same environment that Zach has when he first logs on? The letters stand for substitute user. You can give yourself privileges of any user whose password you know (or any user when you are running as root). You can also execute a command (other than a shell) as the specified user.

Friday, August 30, 2019

“a Contemporary View on Health Care System in Bangladesh.”

CHAPTER – 1 Introduction 1. 0 origin and background of the report The report ‘‘A Contemporary view on Health Care System in Bangladesh’’ is the outcome of Internship Program which is a precondition for acquiring MBA Degree. Only curriculum activities are not enough for handling the real business environment, so it is necessary to get the better knowledge about the real scenario. The report is a requirement of the internship program for my MBA Degree. Conduction of Internship/ Dissertation started on 20th December 2009 and ended on 12th February 2010.My internship supervisor at International Islamic University Chittagong, Dhaka Campus, Mr. R M Nasrullah Zaidi assigned me the topic of my report. The reason behind choosing this topic is getting a clear picture of the health sector of Bangladesh. Working on this topic gives me an opportunity to understand the Problem and prospect of health care system in Bangladesh. In today’s world of globalizatio n Thiland is seeking to encourage â€Å"health tourist† to its country under the banner of ‘Thailand: Centre of Excellent Health Care of Asia’, India is building an e-health industry and Singapore is building hospitals abroad.When scenarios are like that where the health sector of Bangladesh ? Here we try to get a idea about what is the real scenario of various related issues like access to health-relate knowledge and technology, the provision of new hospital and aliened health institution and the availability of health professionals. 1. 1 objectives of the report The objective of my study divided into two segments: 1. 1. 1 Primary Objective The primary objective of this report is to meet the requirements of the course, OCP 5900, Internship. 1. 1. 2 Secondary ObjectiveThe secondary objectives are: * To confer a clear picture of National health senario. * To know about list and capacity of existing Hospital & clinic * To know about manpower supply capacity and req uirement * To know about Morbidity and its rate * To know about Available alternative or traditional medical care system. * To know about health education of mass people * To know about government structure- health system * To know about demographic structure of population * To know about role of different institution in respect of Health Care 1. methodology I have planned to perform the task in four stages: Step 1 Planning of the work Step 2 Data collection Step 3 Analysis and interpretation of data Step 4 Drawing conclusions and recommendations The first stage is the most important stage. I have allocated enormous time for this stage. I am emphasizing on thorough and detailed planning. Planning includes detailed methodology and scheduling of the remaining three stages. I am also emphasizing on documenting detailed planning which would serve as a guideline and performance measure for the whole report.The second stage is the data collection stage. I have planned to collect data in t hree main phases. * Collect data from internet, different books and medical journals. * Conduct interviews with selected representatives from different level of health professionals. This phase actually concentrates on clarification and elaboration of data collected from the first phase. * Conduct interviews and communicate with health providers who are in the front line. This phase actually concentrates on accumulating data for the overall scenario. The third stage is the analysis and interpretation of data.In this stage I would use some statistical and graphical analysis tools to interpret the relationship among different variables and factors. The fourth stage is the stage for drawing conclusions and prescribing recommendations. In this stage the results from the previous stage would be used to draw conclusions about different aspects of concerned matters within the organization and prescribe some recommendation for future improvement. The project is base on both primary and seco ndary information. Primary Source: * Informal discussion with employees of UHL. Observation while working in different desks * Interview with health care providers. Secondary Sources: * Official Web Site of UHL * Annual Reports of Ministry of Health * Various Manuals and Brochures of DG Health * Different publications of WHO. 1. 3 scope This report solely deals with the health related information of Bangladesh. Here we try to accumulate information from various topics that have role with the health system of a country. The project is based on both primary and secondary information. Health system is a very vast area to work; thousands of issues are related here.Here we make some major segment to discuss like national health status, health care delivery system, facility based health service, leading public health problems and health education. 1. 4 limitations 1. The major limitation faced in preparing this report is the enormous number of parameters that have relationship to the heal th care system of a country. 2. Less availability of data at all tiers of service providing especially in the private sector. 3. Less accessibility to data due to shortage of time and proper arrangement and at the same time the authenticity of data not beyond questions. 4.Health sector requires few specified technical knowhow for better understanding. Being a non medical background some time face some problem to understand technical terminology and frequently needed explanation and further study. CHAPTER – 2 Bangladesh: National Health Status 2. 0Location and Geography Bangladesh was emerged as an independent and sovereign country in 1971 following a nine months war of liberation. The country is one of the largest deltas of the world with a total area of 147,570 sq km. Being a low-lying country it stretches latitudinal between 20? 34†² and 26? 38†² north and longitudinally between 88? 01†² and 92? 1†² east. It is mostly surrounded by Indian Territory (West Bengal, Tripura, Assam and Meghalaya), except for a small strip in the southeast by Myanmar. Bay of Bengal lies on the south. The standard time of the country is GMT +6 hrs. 2. 1History Bangladesh has a glorious history and rich heritage. Once it was known as ‘Sonar Bangla' or the ‘Golden Bengal'. The territory now constituting Bangladesh was under the Muslim rule for over five and a half centuries from 1201 to 1757 AD. Subsequently, it came under the British rule following the defeat of the sovereign ruler, Nawab Sirajuddaula, at the battle of Plessey on 23 June 1757.The British ruled over the Indian subcontinent including this land for nearly 190 years from 1757 to 1947. During that period, Bangladesh was a part of the British Indian provinces of Bengal and Assam. With the termination of British rule in August 1947, the sub-continent was partitioned into India and Pakistan. Bangladesh was a part of Pakistan and was called ‘East Pakistan'. 2. 2Physiography With a bout half of its surface below the 10 m contour line, Bangladesh is located at the lowermost reaches of three mighty river systems -the Ganges-Padma river system, Brahmaputra-Jamuna river system and Surma-Meghna river system.Coinciding with the division of the country based on altitude the land can be divided into three major categories of physical units: Tertiary hills, Pleistocene uplands and Recent plains (formed in recent epoch). The heavy monsoon rainfall coupled with the low altitude of major parts of the country makes floods an annual phenomenon in Bangladesh. Quaternary (began about 2 million years ago and extends to the present) sediments, deposited mainly by the Ganges, Brahmaputra (Jamuna) and Meghna rivers and their numerous distributaries, cover about three-quarters of Bangladesh.The physiography and the drainage pattern of the vast alluvial plains in the central, northern and western regions have gone under considerable alterations in recent times. In the context of ph ysiography, Bangladesh may be classified into three distinct regions: (a) floodplains, (b) terraces and (c) hills, each having distinguishing characteristics of its own. The physiography of the country has been divided into 24 sub-regions and 54 units. 2. 3Climate Bangladesh has a tropical monsoon-type climate, with a hot and rainy summer and a dry winter.January is the coolest month with temperatures averaging near 260 C (780 F) and April is the warmest with temperatures from 330 to 360 C (910 to 960 F). The climate is one of the wettest in the world. Most places receive more than 1,525 mm of rain a year, and areas near the hills receive 5,080 mm). Most rains occur during the monsoon (June-September) and little in winter (November-February). Bangladesh has warm temperatures throughout the year, with relatively little variation from month to month. January tends to be the coolest month and May the warmest.In Dhaka, the average January temperature is about 19 °C (about 66 °F), an d the average May temperature is about 29 °C (about 84 °F). 2. 4Administration From the administrative point of view, Bangladesh is divided into 6 Divisions, 64 Districts, 6 City Corporations, 308 Municipalities, 482 Upazilas and 4498 Unions. The six administrative division's are namely, Dhaka, Chittagong, Rajshahi, Khulna, Barisal and Sylhet. The country is governed by the Parliamentary Democracy and it has a unitary National Parliament, nameBangladesh Jatiya Sangsad. There are 40 Ministries and 12 Divisions.The Ministry of Health ; Family Welfare is one of largest ministries in the country. At the national level, the Ministry oHealth ; Family Welfare (MOHFW) is responsible for policy, planning and decision making atmacro level. Under MOHFW, there are four Directorates, viz. , Directorate General of HealthServices, Directorate General of Family Planning, Directorate of Nursing Services and Directorate of Drug Administration. Beside, there are a separate National Nutrition Proje (NNP)and Construction, Maintanance and Management Unit (CMMU). . 5Economy Bangladesh has an agrarian economy, although the share of agriculture to GDP has beendecreasing over the last few years. Yet it dominates the economy accommodating major rural labour force. From marketing point of view, Bangladesh has been following a mixed economy that operates on free market principles. The GDP of Bangladesh is 6. 21% and per capitincome is US$ 599. The principal industries of the country include readymade garments,textiles, chemical fertilizers, pharmaceuticals, tea processing, sugar, leather goods etc.Theprincipal mineral includes Natural gas, Coal, white clay, glass sand etc. 2. 6Communication The transport system of Bangladesh consists of roads, railways, inland waterways, two sea ports, maritime shipping and civil aviation catering for both domestic and international traffic. Presentlythere are about 21,000 km of paved roads; 2,706 route-kilometres of railways (BG-884km and MG -1,822 km ); 3,800 km of perennial waterways which increases to 6,000 km durinthe monsoon, 2 seaports (Chittagong and Chalna) and 3 international (Dhaka, Chittagong andSylhet) and 8 domestic airports. . 7Religion and Culture The majority (about 88%) of the people are Muslim. Over 98% of the people speak in Bangla. English, however is widely spoken. Bangladesh is heir to a rich cultural legacy. In two thousand or more years of its chequered history, many illustrious dynasties of kings and Sultans ruled the country and have left their mark in the shape of magnificent cities and monuments. The people of Bangladesh are very simple and friendly. A beautiful communal harmony among the different religions has ensured a very congenial atmosphere.More than 75% of the population lives in rural areas. Urbanization has, however, been rapid in the last few decades. 2. 8Population and Demography Bangladesh is now Asia's fifth and world's eighth populous country with an estimated population of about 146 mil lion. Density of population is around 979 per square kilometer, the highest in the world. Rural population comprises about 76% while urban constitutes about 24%. Adult literacy rate is 54% (2006). Census of 2001 reveals that 43 per cent of the population is below 15 years of age.This young age structure constitutes built-in population momentum. Also urban population is increasing quite fast. Though Bangladesh has made progress in reducing poverty and per capita income has been creeping up, a substantial number of population are poor. Progress made in improving Bangladesh's Human Development Index (HDI) has placed her among the medium-ranking HDI countries. Strong policy interventions led to continuous reduction in the annual growth rate of population from the level of 2. 33 % in 1981 to 1. 54 in 2001 and further to 1. 48 (2007). The TotalFartility Rate (TFR) also went down from 3. 4 in 1993-94 to 2. 2 (2007). The CPR (any method) increased from 44. 6% in 1993-94 to 58. 1% in 2004, b ut again fell down to 55. 8% in 2007. Life expectancy at birth has continuously been rising, and is now 65 years (2007) from the level of 58 (1994). Reversing past trends, women now live longer than men. The country, however, is over burdened with about two million new faces every year creating extra pressure on food, shelter, education, health, employment, etc. , and thus making the anticipated economic growth difficult. . 9Health Status Since independence Bangladesh has made significant progress in health outcomes. Infant and Child mortality rates have been markedly reduced. The underfive mortality rate in Bangladesh declined from 151 deaths per thousand live births in 1991 to 65 deaths/1000 live births in 2007 and during the same period infant mortality rate reduced from 94 deaths per 1000 live births to 52. EPI coverage extended its reach from 54% in 1991 to 87. 2% in 2006. The MMR reduced from 574/100,000 live births in 1991 to 290 in 2007.Deliveries attended by skilled birth a ttendants increased from only 5% in 1990 to 20% in 2006. The prevalence of malaria dropped from 42 cases /100,000 in 2001 to 34 in 2005. Bangladesh has also achieved significant success in halting and reversing the spread of tuberculosis (TB). Detection of TB by the Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) has more than doubled between 2002 and 2007, from 34 to 92%. The successful treatment of tuberculosis has progressed from 84% in 2002 to 91% in 2007. Polio and leprosy are virtually eliminated. HIV prevalence is still very low.Development of countrywide network of health care infrastructure in public sector is remarkable. However, availability of drugs at the health facilities, deployment of adequate health professionals along with maintenance of the health care facilities remain as crucial issues, impacting on optimum utilization of public health facilities 2. 10Nutrition Status There has been considerable progress in reducing malnutrition and micro nutrient deficiencies i n Bangladesh. According to BDHS, percentage of U5 underweight (6-59 months) has reduced to 46. (2007) from 67 (1990) and that of U5 stunted (24-59 months) from 54. 6 (1996) to 36. 2 (2007). Percentage of children 1-5 years receiving vitamin-A supplements in last six months has increased from 73. 3 (1999-00) to 88. 3 (2007). The rate of night blindness has reduced to 0. 04 per 1000 people (IPHN, HKI 2006). However, in spite of efforts taken by the government, high rates of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies along with gender discrimination remain common in Bangladesh. 2. 11Urban Health ServiceThe urban areas provide a contrasting picture of availability of different facilities and services for secondary and tertiary level health care, while primary health care facilities and services for the urban population at large and the urban poor in particular are inadequate. Rapid influx of migrants and increased numbers of people living in urban slums in large cities are creating con tinuous pressure on urban health care service delivery. Since the launching of two urban primary health care projects, the services have been delivered by the city corporations and municipalities through contracted NGOs in the project's area.Rest of the urban areas and services are being covered by MOHFW's facilities. Moreover, 35 urban dispensaries under the DGHS are providing outdoor patient services including EPI and MCH to the urban population. 2. 12Organizational Setup of MOHFW The Ministry of Health & Family Welfare is one of largest ministries in the country. At the national level, the ministry of Health & Family Welfare (MOH&FW) is responsible for policy, planning and decision making at macro level. 2. 12. 1Executing Authorities of MOHFW:Under MOHFW, there are four Directorates General or Directorates, e. g. , Directorate General of Health Services, Directorate General of Family Planning, Directorate of Nursing Services and Directorate of Drug Administration. 2. 13Directorat e General of health Services (DGHS) The Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS) is entrusted for the implementation of the policy decisions of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW) as regards health service delivery to all the people under the jurisdiction of the Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh.It provides technical guidance to the ministry. DGHS carries out its activities through different directors, line directors, project directors, institution heads, district and upazila health managers and union health staffs. 2. 14Health, Nutrition ; Population Sector Program (HNPSP) The constitution Bangladesh mandates for basic health care services for its people as one of the fundamental responsibilities of the state. Towards this goal, the government has taken different endeavors to extend health facilities to the population.The broader policy document of the Government of Bangladesh that shapes direction of health care is the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) although the current government has indicated that it will go for Five Year Plan. The Government of Bangladesh is running a program through which the health care services are provided to the people from the grass root to the central level. The program is entitled Health, Nutrition and Population Sector Program for the period of July 2003 through June 2010 (HNPSP 2003-2010).The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW) designed the Program Implementation Plan (PIP) in accordance with the PRSP to implement its sector wide program popularly known as Health, Nutrition and Population Sector Program (HNPSP). The HNPSP covers 38 Operational Plans (OP) to be implemented by 38 Line Directors and 14 Projects/Programs. The Government has recently decided to continue HNPSP until 2011. The details of the program are well documented in the form of Program Implementation Plan (PIP) duly endorsed at the highest policy level of the government, the Executive Committee for National Ec onomic Council (ECNEC).The Implementing Agency of the program is Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW) with its attached departments. The financial involvement is estimated to be around Taka 324,503 million which includes contributions for GOB (Government of Bangladesh) and DPs (Development Partners). 2. 15Priority Objectives and Goal One of the important goals of PRSP and HNPSP is attainment of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The health sector is specially striving for attainment of health related MDGs.The priority objectives of HNPSP are: (i) reducing MMR; (ii) reducing TFR; (iii) reducing malnutrition; (iv)reducing infant and under-five mortality; (v) reducing the burden of TB and other diseases; and (vi) prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases including injuries. The commitment of the government targets towards reaching the goal of sustainable improvement in health, nutrition and family planning status of the people by the end of the program period. It ma y be mentioned here that HNPSP deals with health care service delivery of the public sector.Nevertheless, it strives to maintain a strong cooperation and coordination with the efforts of the Private Sector as well so as to ensure the overall well-being of every citizen of the country. Of the 38 OPs, 7 are under MOHFW, 19 under Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS), 9 under Directorate General of Family Planning (DGFP), 1 under Directorate of Nursing Services (DNS), 1 under Directorate of Drug Administration (DDA) and 1 under National Institute of Population Research and Training (NIPORT) and.Of the 14 projects/programs, 1 is under MOHFW, 9 under DGHS, 1 under DGFP, 2 under DNS and 1 under NIPORT. The Health Bulletin 2009 is an attempt of Management Information System (MIS) of DGHS to provide an overview of the current health profiles of Bangladesh. CHAPTER – 3 Health care delivery systems of Bangladesh Distribution of public health care services and facilities follows similar pattern of administrative tiers, viz. national (mostly capital-based in Dhaka), regional (in divisions), district, upazila, union and ward. The country has 7 divisions, 64 districts, 482 upazillas and 4,498 unions.As the Ministry of health and family Welfare deploys health workforce according to the older ward system, which divides each union into 3 wards. Therefore, number of MOHFW wards is 13,494. Primary health care (PHC), which includes family planning services in the urban area (city corporations and municipalities), is provided by Ministry of Local Government; and in rest of the country by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW) provides health care service. Provision of secondary and tertiary care, in both urban divisional directorates with necessary staff. and rural areas, is the sole responsibility of MOHFW.The MOHFW delivers its services through two separate executing authorities, viz. Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS) and Directorate General of Family Planning (DGFP). The names explain their functions. PHC services of both DGHS and DGFP begin at the ward level through a set of community health staffs, at least one in each ward (Table). To supervise these field staffs, there is one assistant health inspector (for DGHS) and one family planning inspector (for DGFP) at union level. There are several hundred non-bed community facilities to provide outpatient services (1466 for DGHS and 3500 for DGFP).Besides DGFP also operates additional 97 maternal and child welfare centers (MCWCs) (union: 23; upazila: 12; district: 62), 471 MCH-FP clinics (upazila: 407; district: 64), 177 NGO clinics (upazila: 68; district: 104; national: 05), 08 model clinics (national: 02; regional: 06) and organizes 30,000 makeshift satellite clinics per month. The public sector hospital care in Bangladesh is mainly provided by DGHS. Primary level hospital care| Secondary level hospital care| Tertiary level hospital care| Begins through Upazila Health Comp lex (31 to 50 Bed) existing in 418 upazilas. The district hospitals (50 to 375 bed), one each district, provide secondary level hospital care in several specialty areas. | The regional hospital are multidisciplinary tertiary care hospitals (250 to 1700 beds) mostly affiliated with teaching institutes. At the national level, there are postgraduate and specialized hospitals (100 to 600 beds)| 3. 0Divisional level health organization At the divisional level, there is a divisional Director for Health. S/he is the head of a Divisional Directors supervise the activities of the civil Surgeons. 3. 1District level health organizationAt the district level, Civil Surgeon is the health manager. S/he has own administrative office supported by various categories of staff. There is either a Sadar Hospital or a General Hospital in each district head quarter. The Hospital provides services under the management of Civil Surgeon with a view to render out-patient, in-patient, emergency, laboratory and imaging services to the people. The in-patient services internal medicine, general surgery, obstetrics and gynecology and other common specialist clinical services. It is the secondary level referral facility of health services of Bangladesh.Currently there are 59 Sadar district hospitals and 2 General hospitals in the country each having 100-250 bed. 3. 2Upazila level health organization Upazila Health Complex (UHC) is another fixed service delivery point next to district level hospital. It provides the first level referral services to the population. In each UHC, there are posts for 9 (nine) doctors including one Upazila Health and Family Planning Officer (UHFPO). UHFPO is the Chief Health Officer of upazila and also Head of the UHC. Other doctors of UHC are Junior Consultants-4, Resident Medical Officer-1, Assistant Surgeons (MO)-2 and Dental Surgeon-1.There are 418 Upazila Health Complexes (UHC) in the country of which 153 are 50bed and rests are 31-bed. UHC provides out-patient , in-patient and emergency services, limited diagnostic and imaging services, emergency obstetric care, contraceptive services and dental care. 3. 3Union level health organization There are four types of static health facilities in the union level. These are Rural Health Centers (RHC, 10-bed hospital), Union Sub-centers (USC), Union Health and Family Welfare Centers (UHFWC) and Community Clinics (CC). There are 22 RHCs, in each of these, there are sanctioned posts of 20 staffs.RHC provides both out-patient and inpatient services. In an USC, there is sanctioned posts for one medical officer, one medical assistant, one pharmacist and one MLSS. Number of USC is 1,362; that for UHFWC is 87. Under HPSP, Government planned for establishing one Community Clinic for every 6000 rural populations. Number of CCs so far built is 11,883. But, these were not made functional. Recently Government has decided to start the CCs again. The total number of CCs will be 18000. The existing UHCs and Union level facilities will also provide services of CCs in the respective communities.So,13,500 additional CCs will be required. The main health workforce in the union level is the domiciliary staff called health assistants. They are placed in each ward, which is the lowest and smallest administrative unit of the health sector. They visit the homes of the local people for providing primary health care services and collection of routine health data. The health assistants routinely organize satellite clinics for immunization services. Besides there are other small to large hospitals and special purpose hospitals spread across the country both in rural as well as in urban areas.Under the DGHS, there are altogether 40 teaching/training institutes and 589 small to large hospitals. In Family Planning sector, there are one national research-cum-training institute, two hospital-based training centers, and 32 other training centers (national: 12; regional: 20). Nearly six hundred health managers under DGHS and a similar number under DGFP, from national to upazila levels, play roles in administering the health and family planning services (1,17). This figure does not include the institute and clinic/hospital heads. CHAPTER – 4Facility Based Health Services Hospital service is one of the important activities of health sector, which is the most visible health service also. This chapter of the Health Bulletin 2009 will provide an overview of the hospitals and their bed capacity as well as utilization based on the information from January through December of 2008. 4. 0Hospitals by bed capacity There are 585 hospitals ranging from 10 beds to 1,700 beds under DGHS currently. All of these hospitals provide a total of 37,090 beds. The table below gives a detail profile. No. f hospitals by bed capacity and total beds under DGHS Sl. No. | Bed capacity | No. of hospitals in this type | Total beds | 1 | 1700 beds | 1 | 1700 | 2 | 1010 beds | 1 | 1010 | 3 | 900 beds | 1 | 900 | 4 | 800 beds | 1 | 800 | 5 | 600 beds | 5 | 3000 | 6 | 500 beds | 3 | 1500 | 7 | 414 beds | 1 | 414 | 8 | 375 beds | 1 | 375 | 9 | 250 beds | 19 | 4750 | 10 | 200 beds | 2 | 400 | 11 | 150 beds | 3 | 450 | 12 | 100 beds | 53 | 5300 | 13 | 80 beds | 1 | 80 | 14 | 56 beds | 1 | 56 | 15 | 50 beds | 158 | 7900 | 16 | 31 beds | 271 | 8401 | 17 | 30 beds | 1 | 30 | 8 | 25 beds | 1 | 25 | 19 | 20 beds | 43 | 860 | 20 | 10 beds | 22 | 220 | | Total = | 589 | 3817138171| Type of hospitals Following list gives an overview of the type of hospitals currently in operation under DGHS Type of hospitals | No. of hospitals | Total bed capacity | Postgraduate institute hospital | 7 | 2014 | Dental college hospital | 1 | 20 | Hospital for alternative medicine | 2 | 200 | Medical college hospital | 14 | 8685 | Mental hospital, Pabna | 1 | 500 | Shekh Abu Naser Specialized Hospital | 1 | 250 | Narayanganj 200 bed Hospital | 1 | 200 |Specialized Health center (Asthma ; Burn unit) | 2 | 150 | Sarkari karmoc hari hospital | 1 | 100 | Chest hospital | 12 | 566 | Infectious disease hospital | 5 | 180 | Leprosy hospital | 3 | 130 | District Level Hospital | 60 | 8100 | 50 bed hospital(Tongi, Saidpur) | 2 | 100 | 100 bed hospital (Narsingdi) | 1 | 100 | 25 bed hospital (Jhenidah) | 1 | 25 | Bangladesh korea moitree hospital | 1 | 20 | Upazila health complex | 421 | 15958 | Health complex (31 bed) | 3 | 93 | 20 bed hospital | 28 | 560 | 10 bed hospital | 22 | 220 | Postgraduate Institute Hospitals all are national level hospitals and are located in Dhaka) Total = 7 | No. of beds | | Total | Revenue | Develop. | Proposed | Beds will Increase | 1. National Institute of Chest Disease and Hospital (NIDCH) | 600 | 600 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 2. National Institute of Cardiovascular Disease (NICVD) | 414 | 250 | 164 | 0 | 0 | 3. National Institute of Traumatology and Rehabilitation (NITOR) | 500 | 500 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 4 National Institute of Cancer Research and Hospital (NICR;H) | 50 | 50 | 0 | 250 | 200 | 5 Na tional Institute of Ophthalmology (NIO) | 250 | 250 | 0 | 0 | | 6.National Institute of Kidney Disease and Hospital (NIKDU) | 100 | 0 | 100 | 0 | 0 | 7. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMHR) | 100 | 50 | 50 | 0 | | Total = | 2014 | 1700 | 314 | 250 | 200 | Medical College Hospitals of Teaching Hospitals of equivalent level (Regional hospitals and are used as undergraduate and postgraduate teaching hospitals). Division | District | Name of hospital (Total = 17) | No. of beds | | | | Beds | Revenue | Develop. | Proposed | Bed will increase | Barisal | Barisal | Sher-e-Bangla Medical College Hospital | 00 | 600 | 0 | 1000 | 400 | Chittagong | Chittagong | Chittagong Medical College Hospital | 1010 | 1010 | 0 | 0 | 0 | | Comilla | Comilla Medical College Hospital | 250 | 250 | 0 | 500 | 250 | Dhaka | Dhaka | Dhaka Medical College Hospital | 1700 | 1700 | 0 | 2000 | 300 | | | Sir Salimullh Medical College Hospital | 600 | 600 | 0 | 0 | 0 | | | Shahid Suhrawardy Hospital, Dhaka | 37 5 | 375 | 0 | 0 | 0 | | | Homoeopathic Degree College ; Hospital | 100 | 100 | 0 | 0 | 0 | | | Unani ; Ayurvadic College ; Hospital | 100 | 100 | 0 | 0 | 0 | | | Dental College and Hospital, Dhaka | 20 | 20 | 0 | 200 | 180 | | Faridpur | Faridpur Medical College Hospital | 250 | 250 | 0 | 0 | 0 | | Mymensingh | Mymensingh Medical College Hospital | 800 | 800 | 0 | 1000 | 200 | Khulna | | Khulna Medical College Hospital | 250 | 250 | 0 | 500 | 250 | Rajshahi | Bogra | SZR Medical College Hospital | 500 | 500 | 0 | 0 | 0 | | Dinajpur | Dinajpur Medical College Hospital | 250 | 250 | 0 | 500 | 250 | | Rajshahi | Rajshahi Medical College Hospital | 600 | 600 | 0 | 0 | 0 | | Rangpur | Rangpur Medical College Hospital | 600 | 600 | 0 | 1000 | 400 | Sylhet | Sylhet | MAG Osmani Medical College Hospital | 900 | 900 | 0 | 1000 | 100 | Total = | 8905 | 8905 | 0 | 7700 | 2330 | Specialized Centers under DGHS with bed capacity (Year 2008) Division | District | Name of hospital (Total = 2) | No. of beds | | | | Beds | Revenue | Develop. | Proposed | Bed will increase | Dhaka | Dhaka | 1. National Asthma Center at NIDCH | 100 | 0 | 100 | 0 | 0 | | | 2. Burn Unit | 50 | 0 | 50 | 200 | 150 | Total = | 150 | 0 | 150 | 200 | 150 | | | 4. 1BSMMU Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) is the premier Postgraduate Medical Institution of the country. It bears the heritage to Institute of Postgraduate Medical Research (IPGMR)which was established in December 1965.In the year 1998 the Government converted IPGMR into a Medical University for expanding the facilities for higher medical education and research in the country. It has an enviable reputation for providing high quality postgraduate education in different specialties. The university has strong link with other professional bodies at home and abroad. The university is expanding rapidly and at present, the university has many departments equipped with modern technology for service, teaching and research. Besides educ ation, the university plays the vital role of promoting research activities in various discipline of medicine. Since its inception, the university has also been delivering general and specialized clinical service as a tertiary level healthcare center.The university provides patient care services on various disciplines like Psychiatry, Physical medicine, Pediatrics, Neonatology, Pediatric neurology, Pediatric surgery, Clinical pathology, Dermatology, Colorectal surgery, Nephrology, Urology, Neurology, Neuro-Surgery, Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Ophthalmology, ENT, Obstetrics ; gynecology, Surgery, Hepatobiliary Surgery, dentistry, and blood transfusion services. It provides different treatment services like Intensive Care, Lithotripsy, Pain management and diagnostic services like radiology, endoscopy, CT scan ; MRI and a one-stop laboratory service. BSMMU runs Institute of Nuclear Medicine (INM). INM is a joint project of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission and BS MMU. The INM has modern diagnostic and therapeutic facilities including computerized ultrasonography, gamma camera and a well equipped radioimmunoassay (RIA) laboratory.This is considered to be the best center for noninvasive diagnoses. 4. 2Smiling  Sun  Franchise  Program   (SSFP) The Smiling Sun Franchise Program is a project funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). It is intended to complement the wide network of healthcare facilities set up by the Government of Bangladesh resorting to an innovative approach to health care franchising. SSFP is committed to improve the quality of life of all Bangladeshis by providing superior, friendly and affordable health services in a sustainable manner. To achieve relevant health outcomes, SSFP is jointly working with partnering NGOs to convert the existing network into a viable social health system.SSFP objective is to strengthen partnering organization's quality of care while helping them to enhance t heir financial sustainability, thus enabling them to continue serving an important segment of the Bangladeshi society, including the poorest of the poor. Currently 29 NGOs are providing health care services to women, children and through 319 static and 8,500 satellite clinics in 61 districts of Bangladesh. 34 clinics of this network are providing Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC) services. This network will continue to expand the volume and types of quality health care under ESD provided to the able-to-pay customers as well as underserved and poor clients. 4. 3Urban Primary Health Care Project (UPHCP-II): About 35 million people representing almost 25 percent of the population of Bangladesh live in urban areas, a large proportion of whom are slum dwellers.The health knowledge of the urban slum dwellers and their access to essential basic health services are low. Children living in urban slums are deprived of education and health care, and vulnerable to violence, abuse and exploitation . On the other hand, high rate of mortality and morbidity exists among women who remain neglected in terms of meeting their basic health needs and ensuring their rights. The Government of Bangladesh is committed to put in place strategies to address the issues of improving the health status of the urban population. This is to be done through improved access to and utilization of efficient, effective and sustainable Primary Health Care Services.The provision of public health services in urban areas is the responsibility of Local Government Bodies by dint of City Corporation Ordinance of 1983 and Pouroshova Ordinance of 1977. For primary health care services delivery, the public sector works in partnership with NGOs and the local government institutions such as the City Corporations and Pouroshovas. The health service delivery mechanism in urban areas involves diverse roles of the government (MOLGRD&C and MOHFW), NGOs and the private sector. CHAPTER – 5 Leading Public Health Pr oblems 5. 0Communicable disease The prevention and control of communicable diseases represent a significant challenge to those providing health-care services in Bangladesh.Sound knowledge on the disease epidemiology is a must for the health service providers in various levels. The Bangladesh population is namely affected by diarrheal diseases, cholera, hepatitis A & E, Malaria, Mycobacterial Disease like Tuberculosis and Leprosy, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis, Nipah virus infection, etc. Crowding, poor access to safe water, inadequate hygiene and toilet facilities, and unsafe food preparation and handling practices are associated with transmission. Cholera is endemic Bangladesh, between 800 and 1000 cases are usually being recorded daily at the hospital of the ICCDR, B in Dhaka. Hepatitis A and E levels are usually high in the country.Malaria risk exists throughout the year in Bangladesh. Thirteen out of 64 administrative districts are high malaria endemic areas. 98% of all malaria cases reported are from these districts, which are mainly located in the border areas of India and Myanmar. Tuberculosis still remains as a major public health problem, which ranks Bangladesh fifth among the high-TB burden countries in the world. The present revised National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP) was launched and field implementation of DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment short course) was started in 1993. Kala Azar or Leishmaniasis or is endemic in Bangladesh and has an incidence of 175 per 100,000 per annum.It is caused by a protozoa which is transmitted from the bite of infected sandfly and may present in cutaneous or visceral forms (particularly common in Bangladesh). Filariasis is a mosquito borne parasitic disease causality urogenital organs, breast, etc. with long arm disability. In Bangladesh, it is endemic in 23 districts, mostly the bordering ones. About 20 million people are already infected, most of whom are incapacitated. Leprosy has been a major health problem in Bangladesh for a long time. Bangladesh was considered a high endemic country and was listed among ten countries with high case load (1992). Leprosy situation has changed globally after 1981 when the Multi Drugs Treatment (MDT) were introduced.Hepatitis A virus infection is common in Bangladesh with a prevalence of about 2% to 7%. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection is less than 1%. Sporadic outbreak is often seen caused by hepatitis E virus infection; but presence of hepatitis D infection is not exactly known. Polio free status prevailed from 2001 until now (June 2009) except a small window period in 2006 when 18 cases of child polio were seen in boarder areas of Bangladesh. it is assumed that these cases were imported from India. Dengue fever/Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DF/ DHF) is a viral disease transmitted by the Aedes aegypty mosquito. It is on the increase in South East Asia. Bangladesh reported 100, 000 cases in 2005.However case fatality rate (CFR) remained

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Scientific Paper on a Water Flea

The Effects of Alcohol and Caffeine on the Heartbeat Rate in Daphnia Magnus ? Erika Huizenga Ashley Kofahl The Effects of Alcohol and Caffeine on the Heartbeat Rate in Daphnia Magnus Abstract The projects purpose was to determine the effects of alcohol and caffeine on the heartbeat rate in Daphnia Magnus. Our hypothesis is alcohol causes a decrease in heart rate, whereas caffeine causes an accelerated heart rate, predicting that the more caffeine we give the daphnia the faster it heartbeat rate will become and the heartbeat rate will decrease as we give the Daphnia alcohol. After doing the experiment we found that the more caffeine we added to the Daphnia Magna the faster its heartbeat rate became. We also found that when we added alcohol to the Daphnia the heartbeat rate also increased not supporting our hypothesis. Methods and Materials Location: Washtenaw Community College, 4800 East Huron Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 LA building 205 at 12:30p. m. January 30, 2010 Materials: microscope, two glass micro slides, two pipettes, three Daphnia Magna, 2%, 4%, and 6% alcohol, 1%, 1 ? , and 2% caffeine, aquarium water, a stopwatch, a person to record the data, administer the drugs and water to the Daphnia, and a person to count the heat beats. Procedure for the control: In order to make sure that alcohol and caffeine are the variables effecting the heartbeat rate we started by capturing a live Daphnia and placed it in a depression slide with a drop of pond water from the culture jar. We removed any extra water with the tip of a paper towel. Next we added one dr op of aquarium water to the Daphnia. Then we began to count the number of heartbeats for 10 seconds and then multiplied by 6 to find the beats per minute and recorded the result. After two minutes we repeated the process, and the again after another two minutes to get three reading of heartbeat rate on the control. Procedure for alcohol and caffeine: To determine the effects of alcohol and caffeine on the daphnia we started by capturing a new Daphnia and placing it on a depression slide and removing any extra water. We Placed 1 drop of a 1% caffeine solution on the Daphnia. After waiting for a few seconds we began to count the heart beats and recorded the results on our data sheet. Next we removed the excess solution from the Daphnia and flushed it with aquarium water. Using the same procedure we monitored the effects of 1 1/2% and 2. 0% caffeine solutions and recorded our results and placed the Daphnia in the recovery tank. After completing the caffeine series, we obtained a the second set of drugs. This time instead of using caffeine we used varied concentrations of alcohol 2%, 4% and 6% using the same method as the caffeine procedure. Again recording our results and placing the Daphnia in the recovery tank when finished. Results The original purpose of this experiment was to determine how alcohol and caffeine effected the heartbeat rate of a Daphnia. The results of the experiment were that the higher percentage caffeine and alcohol placed onto the Daphnia the higher the heart rate. Average Daphnia Magnus Heartbeats per Minute ? Conclusion After completing the experiment we found that when we gave the Daphnia caffeine the heartbeat rate did show an increase. However, we also found that alcohol also increased the number of times the heart beat. Even though we performed all of the experiments very carefully, we cannot be certain that the effect we saw was due to the drugs. Perhaps the change in heartbeat rate is caused by the heat of the microscope light or a change in temperature. When we came into the lab to do the experiment the solutions were already sitting on the tables. The lab is used by several other students, therefore we can not be sure that the percentages of solutions were accurate or that they had not been tampered with. While trying to remove excess water the Daphnia got stuck to the paper towel which could have caused stress making the heartbeat rate increase during the alcohol test. The removal or addition of the various test solutions may have had an impact on our test subject. When comparing our results to other groups we found that they had different results with alcohol. Because of this we feel that the experiment should be repeated several times and not done only one time to gain accurate results.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

2008 financial crisis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

2008 financial crisis - Essay Example I realize that hard work and determination alone do not seemingly provide all my needs. For instance, I can secure a job in the event that a vacancy is available somewhere. However, the major challenge is the availability of those vacancies. It therefore seems that while hard work is critical in getting a job, other factors beyond my control also comes into play. Back in the days, finding jobs was much easier that it is today. Like today, the conditions were still strict but the opportunities were abundant since many employers were available. The 2008 global financial crisis changed all that. The crisis was partly a result of poor investment plans and the resulting consequences were felt across the globe. There was a general weakening of the global economy with many large corporations running bankrupt. This shrank the job market as many people were left jobless. The US government in an attempt to bail out bankrupt corporations, extended loans and grants to them and this added to the problem. However, I am not very sure about the very extent of the assistance. In my study, I seek to find out what exactly caused the financial crisis. Who or what was responsible for it, how it impacted on the government and society, and how much the government spent in mitigating it. In addition, I will also like to find information on how difficult it was for people who were recently looking for jobs after the crash. Finally Id also like to learn what new regulations have been made to prevent future crashes (Savona, 78). I will therefore begin my study by running an internet search on the causes of the financial crisis. Of the top results I obtained was an article from The Financial Law Review, the author clearly espouses all the issues around the global financial crisis and highlights the role of investment banks in creating the mess (Avgouleas, 456). Henry Lehman with his two brothers Emanuel and Mayer Lehman had founded the firm in Montgomery,

Energy-Nonrenewable,Renewable Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Energy-Nonrenewable,Renewable - Essay Example Major consumers of energy include the industrial, transportation and residential sectors (Gaudreault 683). There has been shifting trends in energy conservation. The conservation efforts involve the use of other alternative forms of energy and increasing awareness to conserve energy for use by the future generations. Oil is the fulcrum of the modern society. It is used run heavy machinery. It also continues to fuel serious political tensions. As a non-renewable resource, its continued use may result into ultimate depletion. This is because oil takes a long period to renew. It has to take organic matter to live, die and decay to form oil. Decaying plants and animals form the basis for fossil fuels. It is estimated that the process of oil formation takes 300 million years (Pfeiffer 287). The combustion of these fossil fuels provides the energy that man needs. Energy sources include oil, coal and hydroelectric power. Non-renewable resources are resources that do not renew themselves at a sufficient rate for sustainable extraction. Examples of these resources include carbon-based and derived fuel. The organic material becomes fuel oil, gas after it is subjected to varying amounts of heat and pressure. Fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas and petroleum are other examples of renewable sources. These resources contribute significantly to environmental degradation because of inability to be reused after extraction (Arthur 1510). Humans extract other non-renewable sources of energy such as minerals and metal ores since they exist within the earth’s crust. Their extraction is made possible by the natural geological processes such as weathering, heat. These processes occur due to many years of crustal recycling, tectonic subsidence and plate tectonics. The deposits of these metal ores can be extracted by humans for their economic gains w ithin the human-time

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Uses of Force by Chicago, New York, La police Research Paper

Uses of Force by Chicago, New York, La police - Research Paper Example Uses of Force by Chicago, New York, La police As maintainers of law and order in the public, police officers should be more cautious on the way they handle people in the public. From sociological and psychological view point, modern study scrutinizes on the determinants of police use of force using data gathered by Garner and Maxwell in 1996- 1997.The information herein entailed the adult custody arrests in six urban law enforcement agencies in the U.S. Dissimilar to most of the recent studies; the degree of force is extended to comprise threat of force as well as varied levels of physical force. The results have revealed strong and reliable evidence that probability os using force and the quantity of force used by the police largely is dependent on what the suspect commits rather than who the suspect is, even after controlling for other factors. The way a suspect is handled and the conduct towards the police seems as the most essential factor explaining the use of force behavior. The results obtained also reveals the effects of race and the gender relations as well as the occurrence of eyewitness and other officers on the outlook. Police use of force The na ture of police to citizen encounter may vary from civil to very fiery, and this may entail both verbal and physical conflict. Acknowledging that characteristics of such nature may encounter alongside with the behaviors of the officers and suspects is essential to comprehend the factors impacting police use of force. All over the world, policing entails and at times demands some amount of force. Bittner (1975) accentuates on this aspect of police work and, moreover, affirms that police are nothing else but a mechanism for the dissemination of situational acceptable force in the society. The law and enforcement officers, are required to use force in particular circumstances, are trained in the use of force, and, in general, encounter numerous situations on their due course of duty when the use of force is required. For instance, in arresting wrongdoers, averting escape, putting into custody the disorderly participants, or when safeguarding themselves and the blameless victims from get ting injured. As it has been confirmed by Skolnick and Fyfe (1993, p. 37), â€Å"as long as the public continues defying law and order, and resist arrest, use of force by the police remains inevitable. Even though the use of force by the police has been significant inn averting and regulating law and order in the society, it has however contributed to alarming rate of social and legal consequences amid the police and the public. This is an aspect that has predominantly resulted towards studying on this essential topic and would enrich our knowledge towards an efficient comprehension in this area of study. Recent research carried out on police use of force reveals that police use force rarely (Adams, 1999; Friedrich, 1980; Garner, Buchanan, Schade, & Hepburn, 1996; Garner & Maxwell, 1999; Worden, 1996). Whether indicated by authorized use of force, (Alpert & Dunham, 1999), the complaints of the citizens, those surveying the officers, the arrestees, citizens or the observational meth ods the recorded data constantly reveal that only a minor portion of police – public relations makes use of force. On the other hand, the encounter amid of the police and the citizen, in which police officers frequently are compelled to make swift decisions may generate inappropriate or unnecessary use of force that may ruin and lower the repute of police authority and authenticity in the public. Among the different theoretical orientations used to explain police use of force, Terrill and Mastrofski (2002) identifies a particular sociological and psychological perspective that

Monday, August 26, 2019

Politics of the knowledge Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 2

Politics of the knowledge - Essay Example Moreover, it crates diverse outlining mechanism of the societal, communicative coupled with chronological references. Constructivist makes this story to be radical, inventive and popular thus conforming to the modern approach of the societal science. Majority of the populace prefer truth-possessing evidence coupled with diverse comprehension. Traditions are methodological that share healthy skepticism of inductivism of knowledge and truth. Inductivism emphasizes on the significance of precise experimental element of the underlying story. Moreover, there is no substitute for an analyst’s knowledge with a data in historical learning of practical influence (Carr, 1987). Above argument is evident in the elaboration of the theory of the epistemic justification and understanding of The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks by Rebecca. All aspects of the chapter aid in understanding despite the existence of competing ideas. Constructivism aids in inserting studies into a bigger social scientific projects. Chapter 8 gives distinct description of the diverse methods , which readers can comprehend the patterns of the

Sunday, August 25, 2019

GA Army National Guard Should Provide Laptop Access to all Soldiers Assignment

GA Army National Guard Should Provide Laptop Access to all Soldiers - Assignment Example The reason for this effort is to find out the best possible way to give the Georgia Army national Guardsmen access to computers. There are two options on the table to achieve this. Option one is to designate a computer lab at each armory, while option two is to buy laptops for soldiers. Cost, efficiency, time, desirability and practicality form the criteria for rationing the decision. Internet research, phone calls, unit surveys and interviews are performed to research data to analyze the criteria. After careful analysis option one turns out to be the better of the two. Designating a computer lab offers many advantages and scores higher on the criterion table. Other than lower cost ‘option one’ can be completed in lesser time. Technology is imperative in the military. There are no second opinions in the argument that the soldiers need to learn, acquire and practice the technology skills. The war in Afghanistan is ending. The troops have to return home soon. In the near future The National Guard will be relatively inactive at the international level. The Georgia Army National Guard is focusing on the education and the professional growth of their soldiers. Although the national guards are not recruits where the administration forces them to complete their education and grow in the professional career of their choosing, yet, if they do choose to grow within the ranks then they need to put a lot of effort in accomplishing those goals. And the best way to do that are the online courses. These courses take weeks to complete. And those courses are not the only thing on their schedule. They have to show good performance in the annual and monthly NCOERs. The administration is also responsible for completing any c ounseling statements. The soldiers have a lot of work that they need to complete on a computer. The unfortunate thing is that not all soldiers have computers or desktops in their homes. Moreover, the soldiers have different computers and

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Topic 6-2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Topic 6-2 - Essay Example The website has place where users can register as members and create accounts. is also an online job search and placement website accessible to all people searching for jobs on the internet. The website has spaces where job seekers fill the preferred job types, skills and city, country or zip code. Users can also browse jobs by using companies, categories and industries and location. Similar to CareerBuilder the website has career resources where users can obtain tips about salaries, benefits, interviews, education and skills, resume and diversity resources among others. The website has a place for users to register as members and create accounts. Unlike the CareerBuilder, the Monster has mobile application that allows job seekers to access the website and related features. Contrary to the CareerBuilder, the Monster has no part where users can upload their resumes for potential employers to obtain finer

Friday, August 23, 2019

The Carol Web Portal (CWP) Project Planning Coursework

The Carol Web Portal (CWP) Project Planning - Coursework Example This project report will give an overview of the system as it is perceived and will discuss various milestones of the CWP.   The software is destined to be a web-based system with several independent modules to be implemented as and when required.   These modules include Concert Management Module, Fan Club Module, Inventory Module, Order Management Module and Payroll System.  As the system is designed to be a complete web portal, therefore, it has to have following important system components and servers. The CWP will use visual studio 2005 platform, the frontend will be developed in ASP dotNet, business logic will be implemented using C Sharp and SQL Server 2005 will be used as backend database system for the portal. The CWP will be developed to sustain many unforeseen circumstances in various steps to respond to contingency include the availability of Uninterruptable Power Supply system, standby servers, system maintenance equipment and staff etc. The CWP will be the complete solution for Carol the singer and it will fully digitize the environment, orders will be placed online, system generated invoices, fully integrated email system, staff payroll system is some of the important segments of the portal. These systems along with other functionalities will provide value to the system users and will help to establish a paperless environment. Moreover, the backups and disaster recovery strategies will ensure prompt system and data recovery. The CWP is required to support all activities of the Carol Concerts, staff management, fan club management, email management, order and invoice management and other activities related to duo Val and Tyne Card. The success of the system depends on its availability around the clock, functional support for all requisite operations highlighted in the requirement analysis of the system.

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Rugby Football Union Essay Example for Free

Rugby Football Union Essay With sport gaining increasing esteem, and spreading largely into university, the first sets of national rules came about through the Oxbridge melting pot with the Football Association (1863) and the Rugby Football Union (1871). The combination of Oxford and Cambridge university students comprised standardized rules and this further development undoubtedly helped expand sport in Britain. Increased participation by lower classes in the 19th century soon led to the questioning of middle class social control. The growth of professionalism resulted in a series of disputes between both classes with regards to sporting interests.   With regards to boxing, the changes have been remarkable with the core principles still continuing throughout the 19th century. For example, in 1867 the Marques of Queensberry Rules were drafted and introduced fixed time periods for rounds of three minutes and a one minute recovery period. There was also the beginning of gloves and a qualified referee to ensure a fair fight. Another change was in the location of bouts. After 1880, fights began taking place in designated arenas, with proper rings including ropes and canvases unlike the man made circle of spectators that previously made the ring.  Furthermore, there was the classification of weight divisions, formed around 1890 by athletic clubs. The original weight classes of light or heavyweight were then joined by four other categories; bantamweight, featherweight, welterweight and middleweight. In theory, the finely calibrated division were created to prevent mismatches; in practice, they have the felicitous effect of creating many more champions and many more title shots'(John Sugden Boxing and Society pg 31).  However, the continuity of boxing in the 19th century still included the main principal of inflicting a sufficient amount of physical damage to an opponent to win a bout. Outside the ring, gambling was still rife in the sport with potentials of big winnings if the higher class folk such as lords had good participants fight for them. Another aspect of continuity in boxing was the environment in which boxers fought in. The fighters in the 19th century were still surrounded by rowdy spectators which created a sense of hostility around the setting. Lastly, the social aspect of boxing remained within the sport. The working class men saw boxing as an outlet from the hard shifts undergone at the factories and could enjoy a social drink. With regards to horse racing, there were many changes within the 19th century. The variety of races were expanded and specific roles were assigned for certain people on the race course e.g. starters, judges and bookmakers.  Jarvie, G (2006) explains how the sport has developed after the 1800s. With the rail link leading to increased transport, came larger attendances at races, allowing for jockeys to travel about in order to compete elsewhere which is how Horne. J; Tomlinson, A and Whannel, G (1999) refer to the development of the characteristics of horse racing through the nature of the modernisation of 19th century Britain. An aspect of continuity in horse racing is gambling which is a key role within English horse racing. Gambling in horse racing has been rife since the beginning due to the large financial and economical profits that gambling provides to the British public and society.  Another point of continuity in horse racing in the 19th century is that it was the highest spectator sport within Britain, with the annual race being a large social event for many towns, merging all social classes together. Another change is in the equality of horse racing. Initially, in horse racing, the upper classes retained jockeys to ride on their behalf (Barry, 2002: p 5) due to the costs of maintaining the horses, travel expenses and entry fees. Kay, J and Vamplew, W (2003: p 128) stated that, there was an equality of aim to organise and win races but an inequality of means which divide the sport and its participants into discrete zones of competition. Furthermore, racing declared to, promote intercourse between different classes of society (Vamplew, W 1976: p 130) in order to provide equal opportunity and since there were no set rules prior to 1797, the 19th century was vital to horse racing, providing the Rules Concerning Horse Racing in General. These were followed by amendments made by the jockey club.  The 19th century brought an improved standard upon horse racing with time trials, improved diets and fluid retention along with sweating and purging and the first record of a horse race was made in 1842 in the Racing Calendar due to the improvement of literacy. Additionally, with British society rapidly altering with the industrial revolution, horse racing in the 19th century provided increased police supervision and protection to maintain order and set an example to society.  The new middle class also had a defining impact upon the change and continuity of sport in the 19th century. The population grew fourfold in the 19th century and, it was in the public schools that older ball games and athletic activities were re-invented and turned into modern sports. (Holt, R, 2001: p 75) Rugby came from the Rugby School; where Thomas Arnold was influential, and his students went on to spread the sport of rugby throughout the educational system in the 1850s. The game rugby, a strictly amateur sport, started with the simple rule of allowing a player to run with a ball if he caught it on the fly or on the first bounce. Formed in 1872 the Rugby Union initially consisted of teams with 20 players but was then cut down to 15 in 1875. Games were won by go als alone; however tries and penalties were added in 1877 as a scoring system which continues today. Brasch (1986) explains how Rugby league which can be traced back to the 1871, attracting large numbers of players and crowds from the working classes. With such a rapid growth in the sport came a fear of loss of control by the Rugby Football Union and an eventual split formed the Northern Rugby Football Union in 1895. There first action was to impose the payment of players and then gradually changed the rules with the abolition of the lineout and the value of goals was changed to two points. However, the sport maintained the fair play initiative and same method of scoring and purpose within the game. The strength of the men playing the sport epitomised muscular Christianity and embodied British society.  It is clear to see how the game of rugby impacted upon the latter stages of the 19th century. With vast change and rapid growth it is clear to see that compared to sport in the early 19th century it had begun to mature and cement its place amongst British society. The back streets were no longer areas of play, alcohol was controlled in order to maintain society and schoolyards were helping to increase participation along with the formation of new sports. The educational system was profound upon sport in 19th century Britain. It was not until 1890 when Baron de Coubertin revisited the Rugby School where Thomas Arnold was the headmaster, did his dream to revive the Olympics and globalise sport come true. He saw how sporting principles in British schools, muscular Christianity and athleticism were a good way to re-build the youth of France after the defeat in the Franco-Prussian war. His take on sport in Britain drove him to form the International Olympic Committee in 1894. In conclusion, sport within Britain in the 19th century evidently grew along with growth of the United Kingdom and the change from small towns to large industrial cities was like the change from early 19th century football to the rationalisation and formation of professionalism and the Football Association. The festivals and past times of playing sports in any street were given a purpose and designated area in the 19th century. The United Kingdoms initial reluctance to teach sport in schools was eventually turned around and seen as a perfect way to promote healthy living. Not only did sport in 19th century Britain create much change, much of its continuity is evident through the peoples passion to not let work control their life and pursue sporting events even though sometimes it wasnt in their free time. Bibliography Barry, T. (2002) Advanced PE for Edexcel (Limited Edition) Harcourt Education Limited, Heinemann and London.  Brasch, R. (1986) How Did Sports Begin? (edition published in 1990) Tynron Press, Stenhouse, Dumfriesshire.  Kay, J and Vamplew, W (2003)

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Research funding of medical product development Essay Example for Free

Research funding of medical product development Essay Alzheimer’s disease is one of the most common ailments in adults especially the old. Over 26.6 million people around the world are affected by the disease with an increase expected in the coming years. So far, there has been no established cure for the disease whose results are pain and suffering in the patients and death. With these facts, research that can lead to success in tackling this global calamity would be instrumental and welcome. This makes it critical and worth for any form of funding to be provided in any research towards elimination of the same. The document evaluates the various forms of funding available which would help in the research to develop a novel compound critical in controlling and even curing the disease. Discussion National governments are one of the biggest sources of funding for clinical research. Various governments set aside some money in their Health sector budget of which a big portion includes money for research. The government funding programs operate locally or internationally (Murray Johnston, 2010). An example in national government funding is the NIH (National Institute of Health) which through its various sections such as the National Human Genome Research Institute provides funding for research projects in America (Kulakowski, 2006). For the case of research in Alzheimer’s disease, national funding is through the National Institute on Aging. Government funding is beneficial in that they are not discriminative compared to funding from other sources such as organizations. However, one disadvantage is that the funds may take long thus jeopardizing the research (Kaitin, 2010). Associated closely with national governments and also a source of funding are government agencies. Agencies operate both nationally and internationally (Shaw, 2005). An example of such an agency is the Department of Energy in America. The agencies provide the funds to different sub-divisions of research areas, for example, the Human Genome Project section which may assist in developing the compound identified (Boss Eckert, 2006). With their international operations, the benefit is that the agencies will fund any project that fulfills its requirements. One disadvantage however is that agencies are prone to manipulation and thus may be biased in funding projects due to political differences (Smith, 2006). Another source of funding for scientific research projects are foundations. These entities have a wide range of research requirements and interests (Hulley, 2007). Some of the foundations will be specific in the areas they want to fund such as the American Cancer Society that focuses on Cancer. Others are open for any research in any area such as the Howard Hughes Medical Institute which provides funding for various areas, for example, Alzheimer’s disease (Reinhart National Research Council, 2006). Brightfocus Foundation and Alzheimer’s Research Foundation are some of the foundations that focus on funding Alzheimer based research (Financing roundup, 2008). The benefit in using foundations is that they span a wide range of research areas thus a big chance of being funded (Clinical research in Finland in 2002 and 2007, 2013). There is a disadvantage in that funding from foundations is subject to misappropriation through vices such as corruption affects the operations (Ca mbron, 2008). Many individuals have been known to offer private funding for research projects all over the world. Wealthy individuals are now funding scientific research institutions or individual based ones (Page, 2012). Armand Hammer, former chairman of Occidental Petroleum Corporation is an example. For his case, he provided funding for cancer related projects (Lee, 2010). Another example is Ronald Perelman and Lilly Tartikoff who funded the Revlon/ UCLA women’s Cancer Research Program under the leadership of Salmon (Bazell Bernstein, 1998). One advantage of funding from individuals is that there are no rigorous processes involved in obtaining the funds like is the case with government agencies and foundations. A disadvantage in using the same is that individual funding may be withdrawn when differences arise thus stalling the research (Kullmann, 2006). References Bazell, R., Bernstein, A. (1998). Her-2: The making of herceptin, a revolutionary treatment for breast cancer. New York: Random House. Boss, J. M., Eckert, S. H. (2006). Academic scientists at work. New York, NY: Springer. Cambron, J. (2008). Grant funding for elderly health services (6th ed.). Manasquan, NJ: Health Resources Publishing. Clinical research in Finland in 2002 and 2007: Quantity and type. (2013). BioMed Central.Financings roundup.(Harvard University Office of Technology Development is funding for research projects in biomedical and life sciences )(Report). (2008, February 11). Medical Device Week.Hulley, S. (2007). Designing clinical research (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams Wilkins. Kaitin, K. (2010). (video) Research funding of medical product development.Kulakowski, E. (2006). Research administration and management. Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett. Kullmann, P. (2012). The Inventors Guide for Medical Technology From Your Napkin to the Market. Minneapolis: Hillcrest Media Group. Lee, J. (2010). Biomedical engineering entrepreneurship. Singapore: World Scientific. Murray, T. H., Johnston, J. (2010). Trust and integrity in biomedical research: The case of financial conflicts of interest. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Page, P. (2012). An introduction to clinical research. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Reinhart, G. R., National Research Council (U.S.). (2006). Enhancing philanthropys support of biomedical scientists: Proceedings of a workshop on evaluation. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Shaw, G. (2005, October). Tapping Alternative Sources: Funding Beyond the NIH. G P, 5(8)12-18. Smith, C. (2006). The process of new drug discovery and development (2nd ed.). New York: Informa Healthcare. Source document

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

The Materials Management In Malaysia Construction Construction Essay

The Materials Management In Malaysia Construction Construction Essay In construction, materials and equipment account for 50-60 of the project cost, and the most common cause of delays in construction is lack of materials (Amir Tavakoli  Ã‚  Adil Kakalia, 1993). Studies conducted by the Construction Industry Institute, American Association of Cost Engineers, and others have emphasized the importance of construction materials management (Amir Tavakoli  Ã‚  Adil Kakalia, 1993). These studies have concluded that effective materials management system will result in a 6-8% improvement in labour productivity, improved cash flow, reduced bulk materials surplus, reduced materials management human resource, improved vendor performance, reduced requirement for physical warehouse facilities, quantity purchasing discounts, minimized cost impact of change orders, and fewer project delays. The saving made as a result of these improvements outstrip the cost of implementing a materials management system by ten to one (Amir Tavakoli  Ã‚  Adil Kakalia, 1993). Nowadays, the cost of materials for construction is increasing form year to year due to market force, lack of natural resources, and etc. In order to reduce the construction cost, material management has to be carrying out to control the construction cost to make more profit. 1.2 Problem statement Lack of materials management in construction will result in rising of construction cost, more wastage, lowering the profit and etc. In order to make a higher profit with a high construction cost, developer tend to sell their development in a higher price and hence building cost will become higher and result in purchaser have to pay a larger afford on the payment. Government should pay more afford to contractor on materials management in order to reduce wastage as nowadays our world is more concern in recycle and also to reduce the afford of people to buy a comfort residential for themselves or to get a shop to undergoes their business. 1.3 Objectives 1. To identify whether the materials management system are properly carried out in construction site. 2. To determine the proper way in carrying out materials management on construction site. 2. To determine the advantages of the used of materials management. 1.4 Rationale of study Building materials is a important resources in a construction industry. No matter how big or small the project is, contractor should pay more attention on building materials in order to reduce wastage and also to maximize their profit. Many construction companies still do not do well in materials management which can help them to make more profit and also to help their construction running smoothly. So, there are some reasons why this research needs to be carried out. First of all, how to applied and organised the proper materials management system to a project. Secondly, how to increase the profit of construction company by the used of materials management system. Hopefully, this research will give a clear picture on materials management and provide a guideline for local construction company to improve their materials management system. 1.5 Methodology Methodology method to be used is questionnaires. First, aims and objectives will be planned and draft out all the content needed. After finalize the survey questionnaire, 30 samples will be conducted by sending to different construction company. The targeted constructions companies contacts are obtain from internet, friends and newspaper. After collected the questionnaires, the data collected will be analyze. Conclusion and recommendations will have made at the end of the research. The purpose of using questionnaires is that it can be compare different ways of materials management system carried out by different construction company and this also is an easy way to collect data. Chapter 2 Literature review 2.1 Definition Materials management is an organizational philosophy that has evolved through application of the systems approach to management, an approach that provides for integration of all management functions. A primary objective of this philosophy is to coordinate all business activities that are part of the materials cycle, from supplier through company operations and on to the customer. Materials management is an umbrella that integrates all the critical materials sub functions and , as such, is a major company function, among such others as engineering, finance, and manufacturing as show in figure 1.1(Eugene L. Magad and John M. Amos, 1995): Capture Figure : Major company function cooperating to achieve common objectives A simpler definition of materials management could be the line of responsibility which begins with the selection of suppliers and ends when the material is delivered to its point of use. (Dean S. Ammer, 1969). Material managements is a concept which brings together under one manager the responsibility for determining the manufacturing requirements, scheduling the manufacturing process, and procuring, storing and dispersing material. As such it is concerned with, and control, activities involved in the acquisition and use of all material employed in the production of a finished good. (R J Carter and P M Price, 1993) 2.2 Concept Neither the terminology nor the concept of a totally integrated material organization has been accepted by all business throughout the world. Many of the local company use the different term to coding this management such as Material Management, logistics, and Physical distribution for similar organizations. Others have embraced the title but not the full organizational philosophy. Despite different names, however, the trend in recent years has been for companies to adopt the materials management or logistics management title. (Eugene L. Magad and John M. Amos, 1995) Business costs attributable to material are significant portion of the total cost of goods and services. Increasingly, companies are recognizing the need to implement this type of organization to maximize profits, improve customer service, establish needs controls, and reduce costs. (Eugene L. Magad and John M. Amos, 1995) 2.3 Functions of Material Management In building construction industry, Material Management works with all departments, the major function is to provide the right materials to the right operating point at the right time in a usable condition and at the minimum cost. So, in generally the Material Management play an important role whether the profit the Contractors firm will maximize or remain unchanged. (R.J.Carter and P.M Price, 1993) Besides that, the amount of wastage also reduced with the used of materials management as nowadays what our community concern more about in the term of Recycle. Below are the basic function of the use of materials management in construction industry: Classification of materials Location on site Movement on site Reduction of waste Quality Control The main point of Material Management is to satisfy the needs of all operating systems, such as the manufacturing production line, the need arising from customer demand patterns, promotional activities and physical distribution schedules. (Ian E Chandler, 1978) 2.3.1 Classification of materials Materials can be classified into groups reflecting the manner in which they can be handled and stored on the site. The way in which a material is delivered will determine how it is offloaded and where it is located. For example, sand will arrive in a tip-up body vehicle and will need to deposit onto an even clean base with walls to prevent excessive spreading. No labour will be required other than an operative directing the vehicle. (Ian E Chandler, 1978) The classification can be divided into five broad areas. Bulk The material is delivered in bulk and deposited on site into some form of container. These materials have a high wastage rate and tend to be used indiscriminately. (Ian E Chandler, 1978) Bagged A bulk material placed in bags for ease of handling and controlled use in small quantities. The bag also offers some protection against wastage and deterioration. Generally, to ensure speedy unloading a large number of operatives are required to carry the bags to the storage point. (Ian E Chandler, 1978) Palleted Bagged materials can be loaded onto pallets on the transport vehicle and on arrival at the site mechanical means can be used to offload them, such as fork lift trucks or cranes. (Ian E Chandler, 1978) Packaged An increasing number of materials are packaged to prevent damage during transit and deterioration in storage. They can be banded together fully enclosed or just protected at their most vulnerable parts. (Ian E Chandler, 1978) Loose Components are in a partially fabricated state it may not be feasible to pallet or package them. They will have to handled individually according to their weight, size and intrinsic strength. (Ian E Chandler, 1978) The firms policy should be, wherever possible, to obtain the materials either palette or packaged. This will generally involve the buyer in negotiations with the suppliers to determine the most suitable requirements. There are advantages that will be of benefit to both parties: (Ian E Chandler, 1978) Faster turn-round for vehicles on site Quicker and easier loading at the source Possible rationalization of pallet sizes and loads, together with package sizes. As a summary for classification of materials by classify the materials into five groups, it can help to aid the site management in determining the handling and storage policy and practice it needs to carry out on the site. The manner in which the material is delivered will determine its storage location, when it will be required, and how it will be off-loaded and transported. (Ian E Chandler, 1978) 2.3.2 Location on site The overriding objective of the location of materials and components on the site is that they should be as close to the point of use as is practically and economically possible. (Ian E Chandler, 1978) When materials are delivering from a far distance to the site, it will result in wasting time in delivering, risk of damage to the materials and also an increase in the cost of materials. It is necessary that the distance of the delivering materials to be managed. In develop a plan for this management, the factor which will affect the plan is the time, space, labour, plant and costs. Time. If the contract has to be completed in a relatively short time compared to similar projects, then the cost of material handling becomes a secondary consideration. It is necessary to stock-pile materials to cushion the effects of irregular delivery. This will have to be re-handled at a later date if they are deposited some distance away from the point of use. The net effect on the programme in achieving continuous production to obtain completion on time may, in this particular case, justify the extra expenditure for the double handling. (Ian E Chandler, 1978) Space. On the majority of sites the space available for the storage and movement of materials and components is the major consideration. The amount of land left around a building or a group of building is restricted owning to design and cost factors. The cost of land is very high, owing mainly to its scarcity value for building, this means that the building will take up as much as of the available land area. The developer must achieve a balance between a high density of population and areas for leisure amenities. (Ian E Chandler, 1978) Labour and plant. The off-loading and handling of materials in site which should be carry out by worker or machine has to be done correctly. The important of this is more main on time as time is very important for construction. For example, by using a crane to lift concrete to a high floor is much for faster than carrying by worker as the amount to be lifted is much larger and the time used is much more shorter. But there still many item that must be carry by worker such as some small item which carry only a small amount and easily broken item should be carry by worker carefully to avoid losing or damage to the item. Costs. Whatever the outcome of looking at the location problem from the point of view of time, space or labour and plant the ultimate decision will inevitably be tempered by the cost factor. If the costs exceed the budget for that particular operation a decision will have to be taken in the best interests of the project. It may be justifiable to exceed the estimate for one activity in order to produce a saving in another. If after a number of feasible solutions have been obtained on the basis of the other limiting factors, then the distinguishing criteria will be cost, with the problem being solved by using the cheapest method. (Ian E Chandler, 1978) 2.3.3 Movement on Site Movement on site mean to move the material from 1 position to another position. Incorrect ways of movement might cause damage to the materials and increase the costs. Basically, movement on site can be divided into 2 types which is horizontal movement and vertical movement. For horizontal movement, the aim is to ensure that the material is moved from one position to another over the site to minimize time, handling, damage and costs by using routes planned to ensure safety and ease travel. The routes should be defined by laying roads or marking their width. Material checker should have the responsibility and authority to police the activity. (Ian E Chandler, 1978) Plant should be well maintained to avoid break down of vehicle in the way of delivery or any other to avoid wasting time on delivery. This might cause delay of construction when materials deliver to the site late and hence causes lost to the contractor. While for vertical movement, this is the movement of materials from one level to another in either a strict perpendicular manner or with a certain amount of horizontal movement. (Ian E Chandler, 1978) Very little vertical movement, except in single or two storey buildings, is carried out by labour excluding for example, bricks and mortar in hods and the placing of sanitary fittings. Labours intensive lifting is expensive both in time and money. The optimum is to get the materials to the required level in the most efficient way. Lifting plant should be positioned around the building to ensure that excessive horizontal movement within the structural envelope is minimized. It should be positioned around the structural envelope is minimized. It should be able to carry component that needs to lifted, also bearing in mind its overall size. The load must be carried safelt and should be secured if there is the slightest danger of it falling. If the lifting conveyance is fixed provision has to be made to prevent the load falling outside the area occupied by the lift appliance. (Ian E Chandler, 1978) The amount of space on site will determine the allocation of the horizontal and vertical movement corridors, with an inherent danger of excessive travel by the site transport on an unlimited site and detailed planning required on a restricted one. The mode of transport to the site will affect how and where the materials will be offloaded. Site corridors should be designated according to vehicle or pedestrian use and prepared according to the loads they will have to convey. The type of transport will have to convey. The type of transport will have to be decided at the planning stage to ensure that deliveries can be handled efficiently. Vertical movement will depend upon the materials to be lifted and the height they have to reach. (Ian E Chandler, 1978) 2.3.4 Reduction of Waste Contractors are often active in the design phase when involved in design-build, construction management at risk, and agency construction management contractual relationships. This early involvement in the process provides the opportunity to help build realistic specifications for reducing waste in the construction process. (William R. Mincks Hal Johnston, 2012) Designers are typically aware of the physical attributes of materials; however, they dont usually consider the waste generated by the use of the material in the construction process. The contractor ia aware of the efficient use of material and its waste in each application. This insight can help the designer choose the optimal material for each particular use. (William R. Mincks Hal Johnston, 2012) The specification need to reflect what the owner is intending to accomplish concerning waste management. The specification should include requirements to achieve reduction of waste, such as requiring detailed waste management plans form the contractor and trade contractors on the jobsite. (William R. Mincks Hal Johnston, 2012) Waste is generated in a systematic process that can be scheduled. Begin making schedule requirements that will illustrate when and how waste will be generated. The schedule should be used to better understand waste generation and how best to recycle, reuse, or dispose of the different kinds of materials being used on the project. (William R. Mincks Hal Johnston, 2012) Figure 2.0 shows the composition of construction waste. C:UsersUserDesktopwaste.PNG Figure : Composition of construction waste Closer cooperation between designer and contractor in the design stages of building can help to prevent waste. The present form of competitive tendering produces a waste of contractors management resources in the synthesis of an unaccepted tender. This is also reflected in the successful tender in so much as the contractor will have had little or no influence over the design. His experience could have alleviated some of the waste brought about by inherent design factors. The incidence of waste has repercussions throughout the contract. Its effect will be seen through extra administrative work by management personnel, an increase in contract time, reallocation of labour, extra costs in replacement of materials, remedying faulty work because of materials, and extra costs in cleaning and disposing of waste materials. (Ian E Chandler, 1978) 2.3.5 Quality Control According to Sidney M. Levy (2007), the control of quality construction begins with an intensive review of the plans and specifications. There may be few deficiencies in the plans and specifications, some of which may have been uncovered during the estimating process, while other were unearthed by the subcontractor and vendors. The project superintendent may have unearthed constructability issues during his or her review. The need for all parties to thoroughly examine the documents under their control cannot be overemphasized. When problem are uncovered early in the game, the impact and associated costs are considerably less. Quality control is the function which must be performed throughout an organization in order to achieve its quality objectives. To produce effective quality control of incoming materials and components a practical site based system must be adopted. The control of work-in-progress will not be discussed unless it overlaps the system to be applied to materials. (Ian E Chandler, 1978) Component of building is cannot without the present of quality control because of the interrelationship of each others. The quality must set at the target where it is likely possible to achieved and sufficient. If the target of quality is arrange out of the capability, it not just wasting the time but also create delay of the project. So, quality control is not just based on what quality standard is to be achieved, but it is also based on the existing techniques and capability to control the quality. In order to control the quality of materials, materials can be inspected by 3 method which is visual method, tactile method, and statistical method. Inspection is not carried out by using either one of these methods but by according to the type of materials by using which method. Inspection is preferred to be carry out before the materials are unloaded as this can avoid unnecessary defective hence to prevent from wasting time and energy to demolish and rebuild. Visual inspection is generally only possible if the items are not packaged and where the quality can be seen at a glance, eg timber. During unloading some damaged goods may be found if a competent person is in charge. If it is left to untrained operatives to unload, damage may be caused and defective items not noticed and their importance realized. Checks should be carried out prior to and during unloading, with a final check on the method of protection. The vast majority of quality control checks are visual and defective material is generally easily recognized. (Ian E Chandler, 1978) For tactile inspection, from the appearance of a material it may be seen to be defective or of a poor quality but by touching it this can be confirmed. This method of inspection has only a limited application and is usually confined to materials such as sand, cement, plaster and joinery timber. (Ian E Chandler, 1978) By using statistical techniques on samples from bulk deliveries the state of the whole deliver can be fairly accurately forecast. It is not intended to describe here the mathematics behind these techniques but to show where they can be applied on the site. The most common sampling test used is the concrete cube test. A quality if concrete is taken from a batch, and compacted into a number of cast iron cubes. These are allowed to cure for a specific number of days and then the concrete cubes are tested for compressive strength. It is assumed that the cubes represent the whole batch of concrete and that the results of the tests on the sample reflect the expected results if all the concrete was tested. This same technique can be used on bricks, aggregate, timber, and components. (Ian E Chandler, 1978) Suggested by Ian E Chandler (1978), to be effective a quality control system should be based on a close liaison between the architect and the builder. A system should be developed in conjunction with the general materials handling procedures and this carried out under the responsibility of the person in control of materials. The system must be set the quality standard, plan how it is to be adopted, implement the methods of inspection and provide for a long term control of quality. An efficient system will cover its costs, ensure that a job is executed to the satisfaction of the architect and possibly provide and additional saving for the contractor. With strict control, pressure can be brought to bear on the materials suppliers and with good quality materials a high standard of workmanship can be achieved in creating the finished article. 2.4 Advantages of Material Management in Building Construction In Building construction industries, what is the advantages of Material Management will bring the benefit to Contractors Company. In fact, the adoption of Material Management by the Contractors Company will generate a number of significantly valuable advantages in terms of total organizational control and materials control. In according to Eugene L. Magad and John M. Amos (1995), the advantages are as follows: Maximun company profit Improved customer service Improvement of credibility Enhancement of communication Improved quality of staff 2.4.1 Maximum company profit According to Eugene L. Magad and John M. Amos (1995), like other major company functions, Material Management is mainly responsible to maximize the company profits. Because Material Management control the company 4M which is materials, machines, manpower, and money, it has significant potential for increasing company profits by reducing costs. Cost reduction opportunities are possible throughout the material function. Some typical examples are as follows: Decreasing part shortages (resulting in more efficient use of labour, plant and materials). Reducing inventory level through improved controls. Lowering transportation costs as result of using minimum cost of transport vehicle to send the building materials Always ensure the material is order and send to the site at the suitable time, prevent any material which is brought to the site prematurely. If possible, purchasing manager should order the material in large quantity and enjoy certain amount of discount. (Material in large quantity like cement, timber, and etc where can be store for longer period of time) Material Management can make an important contribution to a companys profit margin by reducing total costs, which can then provide a reduction in Building development price. Reduction development price can result in higher sales during the periods of marketing for completed building, as well as the ability to maintain sales volume during a contracting market. Another benefit achieved by reducing materials cost is that can help a company to maintain the same product (Building) price during periods of increasing resources costs. (Eugene L. Magad and John M. Amos , 1995) According to Elijah E. Ogbadu (2009), materials management and marketing department should cooperate in ensuring the organization for the profitability. Materials management has the ability to produce the exact quality of the materials used to avoid wastage to obtain the lowest possible cost which will then bring marketing maintain competitive advantage. Consequently sales and profit will be increased. 2.4.2 Improved customer service The second benefit of applied the Material Management in building industry is that the product quality provided to the customer will increased. Quality control is part of the essential topic under the Material Management function. In regard with the product quality, the firm which adopted the Material Management system will normally balanced their product cost and quality. It is not true that with the lowest cost of product will decline the quality of the product. When the building sales in the market with the reasonable cost and better quality, then it will constantly maintain the customer product quality and with lower building cost. (Eugene L. Magad and John M. Amos , 1995) 2.4.3 Improvement of credibility An important factor in the day-to-day operation of a company is the reliability and accuracy of each groups performance and activities. Each and group within the company must depend on others for correct timing and performance, if anyone falters, the overall performance is affected. In some respects, company activities are more complex than this. Individual department begin to take safety precautions when they are forced to work with others who are less reliable than they. With a Material Management organization, various functions (marketing, manufacturing, etc) get better, more reliable service. The Material Management organization provides credibility of performance, which helps to reduce costs and lessen confusion. It also contributes to an atmosphere of mutual and cooperation. (Eugene L. Magad and John M. Amos , 1995) 2.4.4 Enhancement of communication The Material Management offer the benefit of enhance the communication by provide a communication network that reacts quickly and facilitates improved rational action throughout the system. Combining the various fragmented groups enhances communication by shortening message channels, allowing common use of data, providing greater potential use of communication through data processing equipment, and encouraging the flow of information between people. (Eugene L. Magad and John M. Amos , 1995) 2.4.5 Improved quality of staff This statement given that the material manager will promote team based working and will offer greater promotion and staff development opportunities, the company will attract a higher capability staff to work together. Majority, the employee will aim for higher status of working environment and also challenging work. The company with systematic organization may attract those experienced staff working within the firm, so the company with Material Management system is form of systematic approach which will create a good image to company. (Eugene L. Magad and John M. Amos , 1995)