Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Personal Finance Using Accounting Principles Of Paying...

According to our class text (Siegel and Yacht (2009)), we know that â€Å"personal finance is the process of paying for or financing a life and a way of living.† That said, we also know that using accounting principles to manage our personal finances will likely yield great success in one’s tracking and planning, financially, in the long run. Understanding the sources (incomes) and uses (expenses) of funds, and the budget deficit/surplus that results, are core accounting measures to consider in short and long term personal financial planning. Also, grasping key concepts like how your salary/wages are earned and segmented/taxed is important in determining your net incomes. How to approach deficits and surpluses and their associated action plans come from sound accounting understanding. Accounting develops controls on how to deal with budget deficits like increasing income, reducing expenses and borrowing. Understanding how sunk costs and opportunity costs factor into alternative choices and borrowing come to us from sound accounting knowledge and play a role in personal planning. Lastly, through various standard reporting approaches, we, though accounting, can develop the ability to look at current and future personal finance decisions and health via income statements, balance sheets, ratios and other common size book keeping measures. Three products of accounting and bookkeeping procedures that are most useful in personal financial planning would be (1) understanding andShow MoreRelatedHigher National Diploma6446 Words   |  26 PagesINTRODUCTION As we are aware, finance is the lifeblood of business or it can be said as the most important part of all the business enterprises. To understand finance, you need to know the entire business indeed. 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The NBFCs in advanced countries have grown significantly and are now coming up in a very large way in developing countries like Brazil, India, and Malaysia etc. The non-banking companies when compared with commercial and co-operative banks are a heterogeneous (varied) group of finance companies. NBFCs are heterogeneous group of finance companies means all NBFCs provide different types of financial services. Non-Banking Financial Companies constitute an importantRead MoreThe Government and Not-For-Profit Environment100975 Words   |  404 PagesEnvironment TRUE/FALSE (CHAPTER 1) 1. F The main objective of a typical governmental or not-for-profit entity is to earn a profit. 2. TA government’s budget may be backed by the force of law. 3. FGovernmental entities have no need for an accounting system. 4. TA government’s internal managers rely on general purpose financial statements for a considerable amount of information about their government. 5. FGovernments and not-for-profits may never engage in business-type activities. Read MoreFinancial Ratio Analysis11306 Words   |  46 Pages------------------------------------------------- FINANCIAL RATIO ANALYSIS PROCTER amp; GAMBLE | PFIZER INC JANIE PRINCE FINANCE 405 | FALL 2012 ------------------------------------------------- Company Backgrounds Procter amp; Gamble William Procter and James Gamble, immigrants from England and Ireland respectively, met when they married into the Norris family. Their father-in-law suggested they build their own company since both men had useful trades- Procter was a candleRead MoreInternship Report on Mcb20087 Words   |  81 PagesPREFACE It is the requirement of the B.COM course Lahore College for Women University, Lahore that all students of B.COM have to spend six or eight weeks in any organization to get practical exposure and to get familiarized with the ways to live in the organizational environment which is dramatically different from the educational environment. That two months period called â€Å"Internship Period†, if spent properly and sincerely, enables the students to be more confident, more knowledgeable, moreRead MoreTerm Paper on Islami Bank Limited17265 Words   |  70 PagesCHAPTER-ONE INTRODUCTION 1.0 Background of the Study Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL) is the first of its kind in the South East Asia which was established in 1983 with a view to provide banking services based on Islamic principles. The bank, which started its operation with only 3 branches in the first year of its inception, has now 207 branches in 26 years of operation. As a bank, Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited receives deposits from its customers from all over the countryRead MoreThe Accounting Profession and Nat39077 Words   |  157 PagesTHE JOURNAL OF ACCOUNTING ANAN Volume 1, No 1, March 2009 Published by: Nigerian College of Accountancy, Jos Postgraduate Professional College and Training Arm of ANAN ...Advancing the Science of Accountancy EDITORIAL BOARD Prof. Edet Robinson Iwok, Ph.D, FCNA Prof. A. A. Okwoli, Ph.D, FCNA Prof. Abimaje Akpa, Ph.D, FCNA Prof. B. C. Osisioma, Ph.D, FCNA Prof. Edet B. Akpakpan, Ph.D, FCNA, Prof. A. C. Ezejulue, Ph.D, FCNA Prof. A. S. Mikailu, Ph.D, FNIA Chairman, Education, TrainingRead MoreTaxation as an Instrument of Economic Growth and Development in Nigeria13527 Words   |  55 Pagesdegree in the Department of Accounting, College of Management sciences, Al-Hikmah University of Ilorin, Ilorin. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Mr. A.B Uthman DATE PROJECT SUPERVISOR †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ .†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Mr. R.A Iyanda DATE HEAD OF DEPARTMENT (ACCOUNTING) †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦ Read MoreFeasibility Studies for Bookstore and Coffee Shop15507 Words   |  63 Pages During ancient times, leaves are used as a writing instrument in the form of â€Å"papyrus† which provides the knowledge and ideas that built the early civilization of mankind. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Autobiography †personal writing Free Essays

My real father died when I was a baby. Only photographs and faint memories help me recall who he was. I suppose I accepted Roy as my father, I suppose I was too young not to accept him but now as I look at his old waxy skin as he lies in his open coffin, I realise that I don’t miss him. We will write a custom essay sample on Autobiography – personal writing or any similar topic only for you Order Now I haven’t talked to my mother in years so Its been years since I needed him. He passed away two days ago from heart failure. My mother is a different story, she was stranded without him, Roy married my mother a year after my father died, Roy was my step-father. The day after the funeral was Monday, I am informed by my financial advisor that my stocks have doubled over the weekend, ordinarily this is good news on a Monday morning but the thought of my mother on her own in that old dusty flat while I stand in my blush office, annoys me. â€Å"Any bad news today? † I ask with caution, â€Å"No, everything is as good as it can be† he replies with a bright smile. I thanked him for cheering me up and he left with a nod as if to imply â€Å"don’t mention it†. I leant over to turn on the T. V in my office, going to work on a Monday with nothing to work on, â€Å"Three dead in terrifying car crash† I don’t usually watch T. V in work because I should have something to do or to help with, I own a company called ‘Earth-links’ it’s a telecoms company. I left and went home at about half past ten to sleep rather than sit in my office, although it looked like the middle of the night, it was clouded up with rain. We have interrupted this programming to show a special news bulletin† I woke up to see the screen disappear into a solid blue picture then the 6 o’clock news studio came on the screen and a small black haired woman appeared and said â€Å"People in the northern Ireland area are asked to stay indoors unless it is an emergency†, the drone which was the rain on the window pane drew my attention, I stood up and walked to the window to see distorted houses and street lights below me, it didn’t look good and the rain wasn’t ending any time soon. The TV blurred on behind me until I turned to focus my attention, â€Å"severe flooding† said the news presenter. Although it might have not been the perfect time for me I decided to go talk with my mother, for the first time in years. I haven’t talked to my mother because we argued over years and so I left when I was 19. I went down to the south of Ireland with her and Roy to sort things out, but that didn’t work. I am now 32 five years have passed since that. I finish up some microwave pasta and use the elevator to get to the car park, The good thing about a car park is that you don’t get wet, not today. My car was parked beside the exit where some rain water had got into and had soaked my toes. I had ignored all the weather warnings and drove out into the street and the street of Belfast, the rain was so loud on the roof of the car I put on some music, it was about half past five and I rarely saw another vehicle. My mother lives in an old persons flat quite inland. On my way through the country I saw flooded fields and cars stuck in mud. I arrived in the doorway at six o’ clock and pressed number 6 and got no answer, the doorway is not very sheltered and I am now soaked from the rain. I press the doorbell again, â€Å"hello† said a voice, â€Å"hello mum can you open the door its Aaron† I said â€Å"oh hello Aaron, come on in then† she replied, her voice was weary and tired, I think she was sleeping. The buzzer went and I rushed out of the rain and into the hallway. There were 2 doors and a set of stairs. My feet now felt like wrinkly prunes from my saturated shoes, it had been raining all day now very heavily. I leave the hallway and notice my dark footprints behind me, I walked up the twisted stairway, I cannot see how someone could survive in a place like this, I haven’t seen anyone its like it is derelict. I get up to the 2nd floor to find my mother standing at her door, â€Å"hi mum† I said before she noticed me, â€Å"Aaron, why have you come† she said, â€Å"look I just don’t want you feeling real bad about yourself. I want to make things up with you† I said abruptly, â€Å"come inside† she said as she turned to go inside. The smell of tea and unclean furniture hit me like a slap to the face, I sat on the couch looking at the framed photographs of Roy and my mother, there was one of me, I was at the zoo with my sister and Roy, the clash of plates and cups awoke me from my daydream, â€Å"sugar? my mother asked, â€Å"yea, thanks† I said. I took a sip of my tea, it soothed my dry throat. â€Å"mum, I am really sorry for the last 10 or so years, I have been really stupid, I realised yesterday that I should have enjoyed Roys life while I could instead of ignoring you and him. I think I have just held on to bad things I shouldn’t have. Can you forgive me† I said waiting for an answer. â€Å"Aaron, I was being the silly one not you, Roy told me so after that holiday to Ireland, I was down right rude† she said as she fiddled with here necklace. A good start I thought, we went on chatting about the good times we had together when I was a child, it wasn’t until eight o’ clock I went to leave. I walked back down the stairs smiling at what I had accomplished; my right foot was wet, I looked down and saw that the last few steps were covered in water and rising, the rain had flooded into the flats and was just below knee depth. I stood there for a while and decided to get to my car. I ran down through the hallway and out the door, out side wasn’t as bad, I ran to my car through the dark rain, I couldn’t see much but I got to my car which was parked not to far away but the street was flooded very severely, there was no way I was getting home. I ran back to the flats and the door was still open. I ran to the stairs and walked to the flat again I went inside and explained to my mother â€Å"its really flooded out there†, my mother replied † oh dear what shall you do†, I then said † do you mind if I sleep here† my mother said â€Å"oh not at all we’ll sort something out†. I sat and watched the TV until 11 while my mother went to her bed quite early, the television was boring but it passed the time. Three days passed, it stopped raining on the 2nd day my mother and I really bonded through the days surviving on what she had in the dusty cupboards. The rain had mostly evaporated after one day and I went to my car. I drove back through the country past soaked and some still very flooded spots. I got home later that day to find everything as I had left it. The only difference was that I felt new and had straightened my life out with my mother. I have realised, I am happy. How to cite Autobiography – personal writing, Papers

Sunday, May 3, 2020

NYTimes Article Category #2. Ciara Jamie Connolly Essay Example For Students

NYTimes Article Category #2. Ciara Jamie Connolly Essay youNYTimes Article Category #2.Ciara Jamie Connolly05.02.00Submitted 05.04.00Searching For Dark Matter, With Both Eyes Closed. In a deficit-reduction measure in 1993, the Congress killed plans already underway for building the superconducting super collider. This proved that the US was ill prepared to join their European colleagues in studying subatomic particles in the nucleus. This $10 billion machine designed to speed protons around a 54-mile track and collide them, so scientists could examine the quarks, elementary particles said to be at the heart of the nucleus. This machine is the utmost in technological advancement this century. European physicists are leading the way with their laboratory, unchallenged in a prestigious field the United States had pioneered. Without particle smashers, scientists are in the dark, Michael Riordan states. This article fits into Category #2 because it shows the importance of the particle accelerators in helping ascertain scientific theories. If the theories hold true then billions of tiny particles may be the explanation of the dark matter that surrounds the Milky Way ga laxy in a halo. These particles are thought to have a gravitational force. The United States do not have a dismal record of international co-operation on scientific megaprojects, and without this they will be unable to finance the project. Until now American scientists have had to travel to the sites of particle accelerators, in the technological domain of the machine they had thrived to build. However, this method will not work if the United States want to remain equal partners. Without the technology it is obvious that particle physicists face a difficult future. The technology that needs to be at their fingertips is proving too expensive. If they had constant access to a superconductor collider then the scientists could further their conclusions on the dark matter of the universe. Bibliography:

Thursday, March 26, 2020

Crime Scene Oral Presentation Essays - , Term Papers

Crime Scene Oral Presentation Crime Scene Oral Presentation This project was done to simulate a crime that has been committed. The victim in this project has been stabbed in the right side of his body. He was found at his home in Barefoot Bay FL. in the shed outside of his home. After checking the surrounding area for evidence, there was an open bottle of prescribed pills on the floor of the passenger seat of his car. Also found in the car were three pills located on the passenger seat of the car. . There was a knife found on his work been lying in order with his tools. After pictures were taken of the area in which the victim was found, investigators found a napkin in which they come to believe had blood on it. Found on the corner of W Sabal Palm Ln. and N. Barefoot Cir. were tire tracks leaving the street going right onto N. Barefoot Ln. Photos of the track reveal that there is more than on set of tracks turning the corner where the victims house is located. No witnesses were present to detect of any suspicious people were in the area when the victim was stabbed. The victim was identified as Mr. John Hackman. No further evidence has shown a struggle by the victim or any possible signs of a suicide attempt by the evidence left around the victim and surrounding area. Sports and Games

Friday, March 6, 2020

How (and When) to Complete the Square 5 Simple Steps

How (and When) to Complete the Square 5 Simple Steps SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips It’s pretty much a guarantee that you’ll see quadratic equations on the SAT and ACT. But they can be tricky to tackle, especially since there are multiple methods you can use to solve them. In this article, we’re going to walk through using one specific method- completing the square- to solve a quadratic equation. In fact, we’ll give you step-by-step instructions for how to complete the square using the completing the square formula. By the end, you should have a better understanding of how and when to use this mathematical strategy! Ready to learn more? Then let’s jump in! Engineers use quadratic equations to design roller coasters! What Is a Quadratic Equation? In order to understand how to complete the square, you first have to know how to identify a quadratic equation. That’s because completing the square only applies to quadratic equations! In math, a quadratic equation is any equation that has the following formula: $ax^2 + bx + c = 0$ In this equation, $x$ represents an unknown number and $a$ cannot be 0. (If $a$ is 0, then the equation is linear, not quadratic!) Quadratic equations have all sorts of real-world applications becausethey're used to calculate parabolas, or arcs. Construction projects like bridges use the quadratic equation to calculate the arc of the structure, and even roller coasters use quadratics to design adrenaline-pumping tracks. Quadratics even fuel popular video games like Angry Birds, where the arc of each bird is calculated using the quadratic formula! So now that you know why quadratic equations are important, let’s look at one of the most common methods of solving them: completing the square. What Is Completing The Square and When Do You Use It? There are actually four ways to solve a quadratic equation: taking the square root, factoring, completing the square, and the quadratic formula. Unfortunately, taking the square root and factoring only work in certain situations. For example, let’s look at the following quadratic equation: $x^2 + 6x = -2$ Solving a quadratic equation by taking the square root involves taking the square root of each side of the equation. Because this equation contains a non-squared $\bi x$ (in $\bo6\bi x$), that technique won’t work. Factoring, on the other hand, involves breaking the quadratic equation into two linear equations that are both equal to zero. Unfortunately, trying to factor this equation doesn’t result in two linear equations! Both the quadratic formula and completing the square will let you solve any quadratic equation. (In this post, we’re specifically focusing on completing the square.) When you complete the square, you change the equation so that the left side of the equation is a perfect square trinomial. That’s just a fancy way of saying that completing the square is a technique that transforms your quadratic equation from an equation that can’t be factored into one that can. Completing the square applies to even the trickiest quadratic equations, which you’ll see as we work through the example below. Your Step-By-Step Guide for How to Complete the Square Now that we’ve determined that our formula can only be solved by completing the square, let’s look at our example formula again: $x^2 + 6x = -2$ Step 1: Figure Out What’s Missing When you look at the equation above, you can see that it doesn’t quite fit the quadratic equation format ($ax^2 + bx + c = 0$). The number that should go in the $c$ spot, which is also known as the constant, is missing. So from a logical perspective, the equation actually looks like this: $x^2 + 6x +$ __?__ $= -2$ In order to solve this equation, we first need to figure out what number goes into the blank to make the left side of the equation a perfect square. (This missing number is called the constant.) By doing that, we’ll be able to factor the equation like normal. Step 2: Use the Completing the Square Formula But at this point, we have no idea what number needs to go in that blank. In order to figure that out, we need to apply the completing the square formula, which is: $x^2 + 2ax + a^2$ In this case, the $a$ in this equation is the constant, or the number that needs to go in the blank in our quadratic formula above. Step 3: Apply the Completing the Square Formula to Find the Constant As long as the coefficient, or number, in front of the $\bi x^\bo2$ is 1, you can quickly and easily use the completing the square formula to solve for $\bi a$. To do this, you take the middle number, also known as the linear coefficient, and set it equal to $2ax$. Here’s what that would look like for our sample formula: $6x = 2ax$ This equation is basically asking what number (this is $\bi a$) multiplied by 2 will give us 6. Now that you know your equation, solving for $a$ is simple: divide each side of the equation by $2x$! So let’s see what that looks like: $$6x = 2ax$$ Divide each side by $\bo2x$: $${6x}/{2x} = {2ax}/{2x}$$ Result: $3 = a$ Look at that! We now know that $\bi a =\bo3$! But we’re not quite done with the completing the square formula yet. In order to determine what the missing constant is, we need to plug our solution for $a$ back into the completing the square formula ($x^2 + 2ax + a^2$). Whatever the result is for $\bi a^\bo2$ is the constant that we’ll plug back into our first equation ($x^2+ 6x +$ __?__ $= -2$). So let’s take a look: $x^2+ 2ax + a^2$ where $a = 3$ Add $\bi a$ into the equation: $x^2 + 2(3)x + 3^2$ Put in simplest terms: $x^2 + 6x + 9$ So now we know that our constant is 9. Now it's time to plug in some numbers! Step 4: Plug the Constant Into the Original Formula Now that you know the constant, it’s time to put it into the blank in our original formula. Once you do that, the equation will look like this: Original formula: $x^2 + 6x +$ __?__ $= -2$ Formula with constant:$x^2 + 6x + 9 = -2 + 9$ Put in simplest terms: $x^2+ 6x + 9 = 7$ You might be wondering why we’re adding 9 to the right side of the equation. Well, remember: in math, you can never do something to one side of an equation without doing it to the other side, too. So because we’re adding 9 to our equation to make it a perfect square, we also have to add 9 to the right side of the equation to keep things balanced. If you forget to add the new constant to the right side of the equation, you won’t get the right answer! Step 5: Factor the Equation We’ve already done a lot of work, and there’s still a little more to go. Now it’s time for us to solve the quadratic equation by figuring out what x could be. But now that we’ve turned the left side of our equation into a perfect square, all we have to do is factor like normal. Completed quadratic formula: $x^2 + 6x + 9 = 7$ Factor left side of the equation: $(x + 3)^2 = 7$ Take the square root: $√{(x + 3)^2}= √7$ Subtract 3: $x =  ±Ã¢Ë†Å¡7 - 3$ Final solutions: $x =√{7} - 3$ and $x =√{-7} - 3$ What If There’s a Coefficient in Front of $x^2$? The step-by-step guide we gave you above only works if there’s no coefficient, or number, in front of $x^2$. If there is a coefficient, you have to eliminate it. Once you do that, you can solve the quadratic equation through the method we outlined above. So how do you remove the coefficient? Actually, it’s not as hard as it sounds. To show you how, let’s look at a new quadratic equation: $2x^2- 12x = -8$ How to Factor Out the 2 n order to remove the 2, you’ll need to divide both sides of the equation by 2. It’s really that simple! So let’s take a look at how that works: Original formula: $2x^2- 12x = -8$Divide everything by 2: $x^2- 6x = -4$ By doing this, you’ve made the coefficient in front of the $x^2$ into 1, so now you can solve the equation by completing the square like we did above. Additional Completing the Square Resources We know that completing the square can be tricky, which is why we’ve compiled a list of resources to help you if you’re still having trouble with how to complete the square. More Sample Problems As you already know, practice makes perfect. That’s why it’s important to work as many quadratic equations as you need to in order to feel comfortable solving these types of problems. Luckily for you, completing the square can be used to solve any quadratic equation, so as long as the practice questions are quadratics, you can use them! One great resource for this is Lamar University’s quadratic equation page, which has a variety of sample problems as well as answers. Another good resource for quadratic equation practice is Math Is Fun’s webpage. If you scroll to the bottom, they have quadratic equation practice questions broken up into categories by difficulty. Completing the Square Tutorial Videos If you’re a visual learner, you might find it easier to watch someone solve quadratic equations instead. Khan Academy has an excellent video series on solving quadratic equations, including one video dedicated to showing you how to complete the square. YouTube also has some great resources, including this video on completing the square and this video that shows you how to tackle more advanced quadratic equations. Completing the Square Calculator If you want to check your work, there are some completing the square calculators available online. It can be a good way to make sure you’re working problems correctly if you don’t have an answer guide. But be forewarned: relying on a tool like this won’t help you retain the information! Make sure you’re putting in the hard work to learn how to complete the square so you aren’t blindsided by these types of questions on test day. Now What? Working with quadratic equations is just one element of algebra you’ll need to master before taking the SAT and ACT. A good place to start is mastering systems of equations, which will help you brush up on your fundamental algebra skills, too. One of the most helpful math study tools is a chart of useful mathematical equations. Luckily for you, we have a master list of the 31 formulas you must know to conquer the ACT. If you think you need a more comprehensive study tool, test prep books are one way to go. Here’s a list of our favorite SAT Math prep books that will help set you on the path to success.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Introduction to Business Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 1

Introduction to Business Law - Essay Example The notices were so located that they were not visible at the time of entering the contract. In addition, the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 specifies that no contractual exclusion term can exclude or limit liability, if there had been negligence that had resulted in injury, death, or other loss or damage, where the term of the notice is unreasonable3. The validity of an exclusion clause is to be verified, by invoking the provisions of the Unfair Contracts Terms Act (UCTA) 19774 and the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations (UTCCR) 19995. In Curtis, the court held that the defendant company was unable to evade liability, on the basis of an exclusion clause; as it had been distorted by its sales personnel6. In Thornton v Shoe Lane Parking, the court ruled that the defendant was liable for the injury, because the contract had been concluded at the time of purchasing the ticket at the ticket dispensing machine7. An exclusion clause averts liability, only if it is a part of the contract. Moreover, in the absence of adequate notice, an exclusion clause is ineffective. This is axiomatic in contract law. In L’Estrange the exclusion clause being printed in a manner that was difficult to read, was held to be inapplicable by the court8. Therefore, the Uxbridge Hotel’s contention, relying on the exclusion clause, is not tenable. Therefore, the Uxbridge Mill House Hotel management cannot rely on exclusion clauses for evading liability, in respect of Angelina’s stolen jewellery. A proper notice had not been displayed and the notice had not been included in the contractual terms. The notices were so located that they were not visible at the time of entering the contract. In addition, the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 specifies that no contractual exclusion term can exclude or limit liability, if there had been negligence that had resulted in injury, death, or other loss